Part II General Standard Operating Procedures

PART II General Standard Operating Procedures

Procedures for using hazardous chemicals that are not specifically regulated or do not require a site-specific Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

2.0 Introduction

It is the policy of Alfred University to provide a safe and healthy work place, free from the hazards associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals. The purpose of Part II is to provide general information and the basic set of practices and procedures that all employees or other persons working in AU laboratories follow.

Division Chairs/Program Chairs/Laboratory Supervisors or Faculty/Principal Investigators are responsible for developing detailed laboratory site-specific SOPs for the chemical and operational hazards in their laboratory. See Developing Site-Specific SOPs Appendix W. These site-specific SOPs must be written and added to the institutional CHP to complete the CHP for divisions/laboratories.

2.1 Safe Work Practices Employee Responsibilities

Safety is the collective responsibility of everyone and requires full cooperation. The focus of the CHP is to minimize contact with potentially harmful substances. This requires knowledge of the hazards posed by a specific substance, the likely or possible routes of contamination, and the equipment and work practices known to be effective in minimizing contamination.

  • Every employee who works in a laboratory is required to:
    • Know the location of the CHP and be able to produce the CHP for any state or federal regulatory inspectors upon request
    • Read the CHP and perform work in accordance with the CHP and applicable SOP's for the laboratory in which he or she works
    • Sign the Employees Annual Site-Specific CHP Review Form, Appendix E as required
    • Know the potential hazards and appropriate safety precautions before work begins
      • Know how to access computer SDSs or know location of hard copies
      • Read applicable SDS. Be able to answer
        • What are the hazards?
        • What are the worst things that could happen?
        • What do I need to do to be prepared?
        • What work practices, facilities or PPE are needed to minimize the risk?
    • Become familiar with the location and use of emergency equipment and facilities:
      • Eyewash and drench showers,
      • First aid kits, HF first aid kits
      • Fire extinguishers, blankets, alarms,
      • Emergency shutdown procedures, exits and evacuation routes,
      • Chemical spill kits, HF spill kits
      • Emergency notification systems, telephones
    • Report to the LSF/PI any major variations involving the frequency, amount, or physical conditions likely to affect exposure to any hazardous chemicals.
    • Report to the LSF/PI any introduction of a new chemical to the work site
    • Maintain an appropriate level of hygiene at the work site
    • Be alert to unsafe work conditions and actions and bring them immediately to the attention of the LSF/PI so corrections can be made as soon as possible
    • Never eat, drink, smoke or apply cosmetics in the laboratory, (smoking is not permitted anywhere in academic or facility buildings).
    • Needles and syringes must be stored in a locked drawer or cabinet and must never be thrown in the trash, left out on a bench or in washing areas. Use "Sharps" containers and manage as Regulated Medical Waste. Call EH&S @607-871-2190 for proper disposal.
    • Glassware must never be disposed of in the trash. Use labeled "Glass Disposal" boxes or "Sharps" containers and manage appropriately.
    • Never leave open containers of chemicals unattended
    • Clearly label all containers of any substance that will remain at the work site in your absence. See labeling requirements
    • Remove barrier protection such as gloves, lab coats, or aprons, before leaving the laboratory
    • Keep potentially contaminated equipment where it will pose no threat to others
    • Decontaminate, clean or sanitize personal protective equipment on a regular basis
    • Properly discard used chemicals, equipment, and any other hazardous waste according to AU policies and local, state and federal regulations.
    • In all situations, individual faculty or staff will be responsible for enforcing adequate safety and hygiene measures in laboratories they supervise.

2.2 Emergency Procedures

For emergency assistance, dial 9-911 using a campus phone or 911 using a cell phone. If assisting chemically contaminated victims, PPE may be necessary.

Emergency Numbers
2.2.1 Emergency Numbers using a campus phone or a cell phone
Emergency Fire/Police/Ambulance 9-911 911
Alfred University Public Safety 607-871-2108 607-871-2108
Environmental Health and Safety, CHO 607-871-2190 607-871-2190
Radiation Safety 607-871-2438 607-871-2438
NYSCC Maintenance, statutory 607-871-2460 607-871-2460
Physical Plant non-statutory 607-871-2154 607-871-2154
Crandall Health Center (non-emergency) 607-871-2400 607-871-2400
Poison Control Hotline 9-1-800-888-7655 800-888-7655

Post emergency numbers in each lab and next to emergency phones. Appendix Z Emergency Numbers and Exit Route is offered for your convenience.

2.2.2 Emergency Exit Routes

In an emergency it is imperative to exit the building using the closest exit, then meet in the designated Evacuation Assembly Area. Remain in the assembly area until you are accounted for and/or discharged by the BC/SM.

  • All hallways and corridors must remain clear of equipment, furniture, and other obstructions that could hinder the means of egress.
  • All exit doorways must remain clear and unobstructed

2.2.3 Fire Emergency

The Alfred Fire Department will take command as soon as they are on the scene. The BC/SM is in charge until the emergency personnel arrives.

  • Evacuation
    • Evacuation is the highest priority in a fire emergency. Upon the discovery of smoke and/or fire:
      • Close the doors in the fire area
      • Activate the nearest alarm-pull box and the alarm rings ONLY in the building
      • Evacuate the building immediately using the closest exit and report to the designated Evacuation
      • Assembly Area
      • Once outside, call for emergency assistance
      • Report any victims within the building
      • The LSF/PI must be the last to leave the lab or area, ensuring all occupants have evacuated, closing the door behind him/her
      • Do not use elevators to evacuate
  • Personnel may consider use of a fire extinguisher provided he/she has been properly trained. When in doubt, get out
  • Fire extinguishers
    • The use of fire extinguishers is regulated by OSHA standard (29 CFR 1910.157)
      • Only properly trained personnel may use a fire extinguisher
      • Portable fire extinguishers suitable to the existing conditions and hazards shall be provided and maintained in an effective operating condition
      • Portable fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located and properly wall mounted where they will be readily accessible
      • Extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view
      • All fire extinguishers are to be visually inspected monthly for broken seals, hose damage, and low gauge pressure, depending on type of extinguisher by the AU personnel designated as Building Inspector. A tag affixed to the extinguisher is initialed by the AU inspector after each inspection
      • An outside contractor performs annual static pressure testing of all fire extinguishers
    • The use of a fire extinguisher is not a substitute for calling 911, AU Public Safety and EH&S in the event of a fire
      • Extinguished fires must be reported to AU Public Safety and EH&S. (NYS regulation)
      • If a fire extinguisher is used, even partially, e-mail a Work Order to the Physical Plant for a replacement extinguisher
      • All incidences that could have resulted in an injury must be reported to the LSF/PI
  • Drench Showers- can be used to extinguish clothing fires
  • Fire Blankets- can be used to smother fire if clothing catches fire by placing the blanket over the victim and patting out the fire. Do not roll the standing victim into the blanket as this will cause a chimney effect and result in face burns.

2.2.4 Accidents

  • Accidents involving injuries
    • If an employee is injured on University owned or operated space:
    • Incident and Near Miss= Accident without injury
      • All laboratory incidents must be reported to the LSF/PI immediately
      • The LSF/PI immediately reports details to EH&S at envhealthsafety@alfred.edu

2.2.5 Chemical Spills

  • Ensure proper spill cleanup material is available for chemicals used or stored
    • For spills involving Hydrofluoric acid, refer to Appendix N Hydrofluoric acid.
    • Hydrofluoric acid spills require specific clean up materials.
  • Minor chemical spill: A minor chemical spill is one that laboratory personnel can safely handle with the resources/spill materials locally available.
    • If the spilled material is flammable, turn off all ignition and heat sources
    • Alert people in the immediate area of the spill
    • Confine the spill to a small area;
    • Stop the source
    • Ensure that the proper personal protective equipment is worn during the clean up (consult
      the SDS);
    • Neutralize or absorb the spilled chemical with appropriate material (refer to SDS) and store/dispose of according to proper hazardous waste procedures;
    • Wipe area clean.
    • Notify LSF/PI as soon as possible;
  • Major chemical spill: A major chemical spill is a spill that is beyond your ability to safely or properly clean up
    • If the spilled material is flammable and only if it is safe to do so turn off all ignition and heat sources
    • Evacuate spill area
    • Close doors to the affected area
    • Evacuate building if necessary
    • Call for emergency assistance or EH&S at 607-871-2190 and notify LSF/PI

2.2.6 Using Emergency Eyewashes

If chemical contamination to eyes occurs:

  • Yell for help
  • Immediately go to the nearest emergency eyewash, activate the unit and begin flushing;
  • Hold eyelids open with fingers and roll eyeballs around to get maximum irrigation;
  • Keep flushing for at least 15 minutes, this is most important;
    • If you are alone, call for emergency assistance after flushing at least 15 minutes;
  • If wearing contact lenses, remove as soon as possible but do not stop flushing
  • Call for emergency assistance, seek medical attention
  • Complete an Accident Report form
  • If someone else in the lab needs to use eyewash, lead them to the eyewash and activate the unit, help start the flushing as outlined above then call for emergency assistance and go back to assist the person until help arrives.
  • For contamination involving Hydrofluoric acid refer to Appendix N Hydrofluoric acid

2.2.7 Using Emergency Showers

If chemical contamination to skin occurs:

  • Yell for help;
  • Immediately go to the nearest emergency shower and activate the unit;
  • Once under the stream of water, remove contaminated clothing;
  • Keep flushing for at least 15 minutes; this is most important;
    • If you are alone, call for emergency assistance, after flushing at least 15 minutes;
  • Call for emergency assistance, seek medical attention;
  • Complete an Accident Report form.
  • If someone else in the lab needs to use an emergency shower, lead them to the emergency shower, activate the unit, help start the flushing as outlined above then call for emergency assistance, and go back to assist the person until help arrives. If necessary, assist in removing the contaminated clothing, wear gloves, eye protection and avoid contamination. If the victim is reluctant to remove contaminated clothing, use a lab coat, fire blanket, etc. as screen. If there is a large quantity of chemical spilled, contact EH&S 2190 prior to cleaning up the water; there should be no floor drain for an emergency shower.
  • For contamination involving Hydrofluoric acid, refer to Appendix N.

2.2.8 Emergency Shutdown And Evacuation Procedures

Emergency shutdown and evacuation procedures for labs will be found in the site-specific SOPs located within the laboratory/department/division.

2.3 Control Measures

As required by the OSHA Lab Standard AU has established control measures to reduce employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. The engineering and administrative controls, use of personal protective equipment and hygiene practices and establishment of control measures for chemicals that are known to be extremely hazardous, provided in this CHP comply with the requirements and intent of the OSHA Lab Standard to promote a healthy and safe working environment.

The OSHA Lab Standard requires that "fume hoods and other protective equipment function properly and that specific measures are taken to ensure proper and adequate performance of such equipment." The proper functioning and maintenance of fume hoods, local exhaust and general ventilation systems and other protective equipment, (eyewashes, showers, fire extinguishers) used in laboratories, is the responsibility of the AU Physical Plant and NYSCC Maintenance Facilities.

2.3.1 Engineering Controls

General laboratory room ventilation is not adequate to provide proper protection against bench top use of hazardous chemicals. Engineering controls are considered the first line of defense in the laboratory for the reduction or elimination of overexposure to hazardous chemicals. Examples of engineering controls include dilution ventilation, local exhaust ventilation (fume hoods), glove boxes, safety shields, and proper storage units. See Chemical Fume Hoods and Other Local Ventilation Devices Appendix P for the limitations of and safe work practices for using fume hoods and other local ventilation devices.

  • Chemical Fume Hoods
    The chemical fume hood is the major engineering control unit in AU laboratories and is intended to provide protection from toxic gasses, vapors, and particulates by maintaining a steady flow of air away from the user.
    • EH&S performs the following on an annual basis
      • Tests fume hoods for average face velocity and places dated sash height markers on the hood indicating the area where the sash must be placed to achieve a particular face velocity. Face velocities of:
        • Tests fume hoods for average face velocity and places dated sash height markers on the hood indicating the area where the sash must be placed to achieve a particular face velocity. Face velocities of:
          • Above 150 (fpm): Unacceptable for laboratory use
          • 95-125 fpm: Provides adequate control of inhalation exposure to most hazardous substances, including radioactive materials and particularly hazardous substances
          • 80-95 and 125-150 fpm: Adequate for manipulation of laboratory quantities of hazardous materials except radioactive materials and particularly hazardous substances;
          • Below 80 fpm: Use approved by EHS on case by case basis based on activities, placement of hood, smoke tests, etc.
        • Tests fume hoods for air flow patterns and leakage,
        • Attaches an airflow indicator ribbon to the hood sash or verifies its presence. The indicator shows the direction of airflow, and is the only way to know for certain that air is flowing into the hood. Sometimes the air flow is reversed by accident during maintenance.
        • Inspection of fume hood for spills, airflow blockage, and disabled sash stops
      • Laboratory personnel are expected to use fume hoods and other available engineering controls properly to protect themselves while working with hazardous chemicals.
        • Wear proper PPE
        • Read and follow Fume Hoods and Other Local Ventilation Devices Appendix P
        • DO NOT USE A HOOD FOR ANY FUNCTION FOR WHICH IT IS NOT INTENDED. Experiments involving high pressure reactions, heating or volatilizing of Perchloric Acid Appendix O require specially constructed hoods. Specialty hoods are labeled by the manufacturer with the uses for which they are designed and it is dangerous to use a hood not designed for these purposes.
        • Before using a hood:
          • verify airflow into the hood by making sure the airflow indicator ribbon is blowing into the hood. Also check any air monitoring device if the hood is equipped with one;
          • determine placement of sash to achieve the recommended face velocity and maximum protection for your upper body with sash height always below 14 inches;
          • immediately report any observed malfunction to the LSF/PI or send a work order requesting repair to the proper facility;
          • post a dated "DO NOT USE" sign on the malfunctioning hood
        • DO NOT USE A HOOD THAT IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY

2.3.2 Eyewashes and Safety Showers

Laboratories using or storing hazardous chemicals, particularly corrosive chemicals, must have a properly working eyewash and shower readily accessible to lab employees as per OSHA 29CFR 1910-151 (c) and ANSI Z358.1. The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) sets the construction, water pressure and flow rate standards as well the location, operation, testing, and maintenance requirements for emergency face/eyewash and shower equipment. ANSI standards are not available online. A hardcopy of the ANSI Z358.1-2014 standard is located in EH&S.

  • All eyewashes and safety showers must be ANSI approved and installed by AU Physical Plant or NYSCC Maintenance in consultation with EH&S.
    • Hand held eyewash bottles do not qualify as approved eyewashes
  • Emergency eyewash stations and drenching showers must be readily available for employees who work in areas where corrosives are used or stored.
    • There is no threshold quantity of corrosive material that triggers this requirement
    • Eyewash stations and showers must be located:
      • on the same level as the hazard
      • in an area requiring not more than 10 seconds to reach
      • in a prominent and easily accessible area with unobstructed access
    • LSF/PI ensures/provides lab-specific training of employees addressing the:
      • locations of emergency eyewashes and showers, these locations must be identified with a highly visible sign
      • proper use of the lab specific emergency eyewash and shower
    • Laboratory personnel or Building Inspectors test and inspect eyewashes weekly, inspect the unit as outlined on the AU Eyewash/Safety Shower Inspection Form which is then sent monthly to EH&S.
    • Lab specific unit manuals should be consulted for specific manufacturer's guidelines

2.3.3 Administrative Controls

Administrative controls set the standard for behavior and/or practice in AU laboratories and serve to protect the health and safety of all employees. These policies and procedures must be implemented and adhered to by all personnel working in the laboratory.

  • It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI to ensure that personnel working in laboratories under their supervision are informed and follow laboratory specific, divisional, and University policies and procedures related to laboratory safety.
  • While the minimum requirements and recommendations to meet the intent of the OSHA Lab Standard are provided here, colleges, divisions, LSF/PIs have the authority to implement more stringent policies, via SOPs, within laboratories under their supervision and are encouraged to do so.

2.3.3.1 Prior Approval

In order to protect the health and safety of laboratory employees and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and sponsored research requirements certain laboratory operations, procedures, purchases or activities require prior approval before they can take place or be implemented.

The LSF/PI and laboratory employees must obtain prior approval as follows:

  • The LSF/PI must obtain prior approval from EH&S, a specific campus committee and/or VP of Business and Finance, Academic Dean, AU Physical Plant or NYSCC Maintenance before performing research, academic instruction or other AU activity that will require/necessitate any of the following:
    • Purchase or current possession/use of: approval required upon initial purchase, also complete Appendix D
      • Particularly hazardous substances (PHS), EPA P-List
      • Explosive materials (as defined by the US Division of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms). A comprehensive list of explosive materials may be accessed from this Department of the Treasury list.
      • Extremely toxic gases (some are PHS). These gases include:
        • Arsine and gaseous derivatives
        • Chloropicrin in gas mixtures
        • Cyanogen chloride
        • Cyanogen
        • Diborane
        • Germane
        • Hexaethyltetraphosphate
        • Hydrogen cyanide
        • Hydrogen selenide
        • Nitric oxide
        • Nitrogen dioxide
        • Nitrogen Tetroxide
        • Phosgene
        • Phosphine
      • Etiologic agents (microorganism and microbial toxins that cause disease in humans). All work must comply with the Centers for Disease Control 4th Edition of " Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) ".
      • Radioactive materials or radiation-producing devices. As of January 2008, AU has voluntarily suspended its NYSDOH Radioactive Materials Permit.
    • Chemical treatment with discharge to storm or sanitary drain
    • Use of animals
    • Use of human subjects. View policy on human subjects
    • Additional personnel or space that will require support beyond that provided in the research proposal
    • Additional costs for waste removal and clean up related to research
    • Working with recombinant DNA molecules or genetically modified organisms. Must also comply with NIH Guidelines for Research involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.
    • Any modification to a chemical fume hood or other laboratory local exhaust system
    • Any fixed installation of equipment requiring discharge to sanitary or storm sewer or increased use or new installation of utility services such as electric, water, or gas.
    • Any renovation, construction or rental of space
  • For any of the above circumstances, the LSF/PI completes the Prior Approval Form, obtains the indicated signature(s) (see Appendix A for approval contact list) and the form is then sent to EH&S for review. EH&S will respond within five business days. Approval signatures verify compliance with all regulations applicable to request. Also submit any additional form as instructed.
  • Laboratory employees are responsible for obtaining authorization from the LSF/PI to use certain chemicals or perform certain tasks. The LSF/PI is required to evaluate lab operations and specify in the site-specific SOP's any instances, additional to those listed below, that would require lab employees to obtain the LSF/PI's prior approval. LSF/PI Site-Specific Authorization Form for Laboratory Employees.
    Circumstances requiring prior approval of LSF/PI are:
    • Working alone (after normal working hours). See Section 2.3.3.2
    • Laboratory operations that will be left unattended. See Section 2.3.3.3
    • Use of Particularly Hazardous Substances
    • The use of equipment, performance of a process or experiment for which a site-specific SOP is written. Copy of the LSF/PI Authorization Form is attached to the SOP.
    • Modifications to any established laboratory procedure (SOP)
    • Modifications to laboratory chemical inventory
    • Continuation of any laboratory procedure if unexpected results occur
    • Any operation for which employees are not aware of the hazards nor are not confident that they are adequately protected or trained.
  • Use of a respirator must be reviewed and approved by the AU EH&S Coordinator
  • Other circumstances requiring prior notification and/or approval may be found throughout Part II and the appendices of this CHP along with the procedures and/or forms required for said notifications.

2.3.3.2 Working Alone

Whenever possible, laboratory personnel should avoid working alone especially when experiments involve hazardous substances and procedures.

  • The LSF/PI must establish lab specific SOP's specifying when working alone is not allowed and develop a notification policy and procedures (monitoring system) for when working alone occurs. Procedures for operation shutdown and evacuating laboratory of personnel must be included in site-specific SOP.
  • The LSF/PI must approve, in advance, all work to be performed by someone working alone and the monitoring system that is established for this work.
    • Monitoring Guidelines
      • If working alone is deemed necessary, utilize the “lab buddy system”. Arrange with someone else in the lab area or building to be the “buddy”. The “buddy” must have comparable lab skills.
      • Establish/verify lab access for the "buddy"
      • Establish a time schedule at 15 to 30 minutes intervals for the "buddy" to check on the person working alone, either physically or verbally, to ensure no accident has occurred.
      • If the person working alone is doing highly hazardous work and there is a suspicion of an incident, the "buddy" should consider not entering the lab/danger zone. "Check, Call, Care" should be the protocol.
        • Establish a visual check system to indicate "all OK" or "help needed"
        • If an emergency arises requiring the "buddy" to leave prior to the completion of an experiment involving highly hazardous chemicals, the "buddy" should notify the person working alone and the LSF/PI. Provide the name of the person working alone, the location, and the end time of the experiment involved.
        • The person working alone should make an effort to complete the experiment in a safe manner and notify LSF/PI upon completion of the experiment.
  • Examples of activities where working alone would be permissible include:
    • Office work such as writing papers, calculations, computer work, and reading
    • Housekeeping activities such as general cleaning, reorganization of supplies or equipment, etc., as long activity does not involve moving large quantities of chemicals.
    • Assembly or modification of laboratory apparatus when no chemical, electrical, or other physical hazards are present
    • Routine lab functions that are part of SOP's that have been demonstrated to be safe and not involve highly hazardous operations.
  • Examples of activities where working using a "buddy system" should be considered include:
    • Experiments involving toxic or otherwise hazardous chemicals especially poison inhalation hazards
    • Experiments involving high-pressure equipment
    • Experiments involving large quantities of cryogenic materials
    • Experiments involving work with unstable (explosives) materials
    • Experiments involving Class 3b or 4 Lasers
    • Transfer of large quantities of flammable materials, acids, bases, and other hazardous materials
    • Changing out compressed gas cylinders containing hazardous materials

2.3.3.3 Unattended Operations

It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI to ensure that site specific SOP's for unattended operations are developed and followed by personnel working in laboratories under their supervision. It is important that safeguards are in place in the event of an emergency. Procedures for operation shutdown and evacuating laboratory of personnel must be included in site-specific SOP.

  • Laboratory personnel shall adhere to the following guidelines when it is necessary to carry out unattended operations involving hazardous chemicals (chemicals for which there are statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees).
    • Leave a light on in the room or area
    • Complete Appendix T Unattended Operations warning sign/notification form with the following information, post on the laboratory door or other conspicuous place out of the danger zone and email copy to EH&S. LSF/PI signs and retains a copy.
      • Nature of the experiment in progress
      • Chemicals in use
      • Hazards present (electrical, heat, etc.)
      • Name of the person conducting the experiment and a contact number. A secondary name and contact number is also recommended.
  • Ensure all hose connections are secure and that electrical and other connections pose minimal risk of accident
  • Ensure proper and continuous drainage
  • Use secondary containment such as trays to contain any spills that may occur
  • Use safety shields and keep the hood sash down low to contain chemicals and glass in case an explosion occurs
  • Remove any chemicals or equipment that are not necessary for the experiment or items that could potentially react with the chemicals or other materials being used in the experiment.
  • Whenever possible, use automatic shutoff devices to prevent accidents such as loss of cooling water shutoff, over‐temperature shut off, etc.
  • Use emergency power outlets for those pieces of equipment that could be negatively affected in the event electric service is interrupted.

2.3.3.4 Laboratory Housekeeping

Laboratory housekeeping refers to the general condition and appearance of a laboratory. Good housekeeping has obvious health and safety benefits and a clean work environment can have a positive mental effect on laboratory personnel. Note that the general condition of a laboratory observed in the first few minutes of an OSHA, EPA or DEC inspection can have a significant impact (positive or negative) on the rest of the inspection process.
  • It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI to ensure laboratories under their supervision are maintained in a clean and orderly manner and personnel working in the lab practice good housekeeping.
    • EH&S will perform lab inspections regularly or as requested by LSF/PI, and when lab is vacated by LSF/PI
    • Lab personnel will maintain good housekeeping within labs on a daily basis
    • Lab personnel will perform lab self‐inspections at least twice per semester
  • Good Housekeeping checklist
    Areas within the lab that should be addressed include benches, hoods, refrigerators, shelves, chemical storage cabinets, aisles, sinks, overflowing trash cans, etc.
    • all areas of the lab are free of extraneous equipment, glassware, chemical containers not currently in use, and general clutter. All chemicals and equipment will be properly stored and managed.
    • all areas are wiped clean and chemical spills are cleaned up immediately, regardless if the chemical is hazardous or not. When cleaning up a chemical spill, look for any splashes that may have resulted on nearby equipment, cabinets, doors, counter tops and floors. For more information on cleaning up spills, see the Chemical Spill section.
    • areas around emergency equipment such as eyewash/emergency showers, electric power panels, fire extinguishers, and spill cleanup supplies are unobstructed, clean and free of clutter. Eyewash bowls must be clean.
    • a minimum of three feet of clearance is maintained (as required by fire codes) between benches and equipment.
    • aisles and exits must be clear of obstacles and tripping hazards such as bottles, boxes, equipment, electric cords, backpacks, etc.
    • combustible material (such as paper, boxes, plastics, etc.) must not be stored within two feet of the ceiling in rooms without fire sprinklers and within 18" of the crown of a sprinkler head in rooms with sprinklers. (NYS Building Code regulation)

2.3.3.5 Personal Dress, Hygiene and Lab Behavior, Eating, Drinking, Etc.

  • Dress and Hygiene
    Proper dress and personal hygiene habits are essential to working safely in a lab and preventing chemical exposure and contamination, even when using PPE.
    • Confine long hair, loose clothing, and jewelry
    • Wear required lab attire:
      • closed toed shoes covering the foot,
      • long pants,
      • shirts that limit skin exposure,
      • wear natural fiber clothing when working with high heat sources
    • Wear a lab coat when working with hazardous materials
    • Remove lab coats, scrubs, gloves, and other Personal Protective Equipment before leaving the lab; do not wear PPE in areas outside the lab, particularly not in areas where food and drink are served, or other public areas.
    • Wash hands with soap and water (never solvents) before leaving the lab or using items such as the phone, turning doorknobs, or using an elevator.
    • Remove laboratory coats, gloves, and other PPE immediately when chemical contamination occurs. Failure to do so could result in chemical exposure.
    • After removing contaminated PPE, be sure to wash any affected skin areas with water for at least 15 minutes.
  • Wash lab coats separately from personal clothing. If lab equipment has been contaminated with a particularly hazardous substance, place in a separate plastic bag clearly labeled with name of chemical and proceed to contact EH&S for disposal.
  • Behavior
    Professional standards of personal behavior are required in all AU laboratories.
    • Avoid distracting or startling other workers - no practical jokes or horseplay.
    • Use laboratory equipment only for its designated purpose
    • Use a pipette bulb or a mechanical device to pipette chemicals
    • Keep work areas clean and free from obstruction
    • Clean up spills immediately
    • Do not block access to exits, emergency equipment, controls, electrical panels etc
    • Avoid working alone
  • Eating, Drinking, Chewing Gum and Applying Cosmetics in the Laboratory
    Chemical exposure can occur through ingestion of food and beverages contaminated with chemicals or chemical vapors or the use of cosmetics, chewing gum and tobacco products in the laboratory.
    • Eating or drinking in areas exposed to toxic materials is prohibited by the OSHA 29 CFR 1910.141(g)
    • Do not eat, drink, chew gum, or apply cosmetics in areas where hazardous chemicals are used or stored
    • Do not bring food, gum or beverage into a lab where hazardous chemicals are used or stored.
    • Do not store food, gum or beverage, even temporarily, in laboratory refrigerators, freezers, or cabinets where hazardous chemicals are or have been stored.
      • Refrigerators for the storage of food must not be located in a laboratory.
      • Refrigerators used for the storage of chemicals must be labeled "Chemicals Only, No Food"
    • Wash your hands thoroughly after using any chemical or other laboratory materials, even if you were wearing gloves, especially before eating and drinking.

2.3.3.6 Access To Laboratories

Admittance to and use of University laboratories, store rooms and other areas housing potentially dangerous chemicals, conditions, machinery or processes, is limited to authorized University faculty, staff, students or other persons on official University business. Measures should be taken to ensure that persons entering these areas be appropriately trained and adequately protected from hazards and informed about the safety and emergency procedures relevant to their activities

  • Visitors and Children in Laboratories
    Due to potential hazards and liability issues, visitors or other persons, in particular children under the age of 16 are not permitted in hazardous work areas.
    • The exception is a University‐sanctioned program, event or activity, e.g., summer science institutes, 48 hour challenge, science demonstrations, tours, open houses, or other University related business as authorized by the LSF/PI.
      • In these instances, all children under the age of 16 must be under direct supervision at all times
      • Policies on PPE must be strictly adhered to
      • All AU policies and procedures shall apply
    • It is the responsibility of the Division Chairperson and/or LSF/PI to restrict access of visitors and children to areas under their supervision when potential health and physical hazards exist.
  • Volunteers in Laboratories
    AU policy states that volunteers act as agents of the University. While not required to sign an agreement, volunteers are under the supervision of authorized University personnel and all AU policies and procedures apply.
    • Activities involving volunteers in laboratories must be authorized by the Division Chairperson and/or LSF/PI
    • Volunteers in laboratories must be directly supervised by authorized personnel
  • Visiting Scientists and Other Similar Laboratory Users
    There are potential risks associated with allowing access to labs and equipment by visiting scientists. These risks include: theft, bodily injury, and property damage.
    • The Division Chair/LSF/PI authorize laboratory and equipment use by visiting scientists and other similar users
    • The LSF/PI should verify that all users of the lab have the required safety and health training prior to allowing access to the lab and/or use of specialized equipment.
      • It is the user's responsibility to have or obtain the appropriate training
      • It is the user's obligation to follow all AU policies and procedures

2.3.3.7 Laboratory Security

Adequate security measures must be established to prevent the theft of hazardous materials, valuable equipment and ensure compliance with federal and state regulations.

  • Division Chairs, LSF/PI must establish a security policy with procedures to include the criteria listed below for all laboratories, workshops, store rooms and other work areas housing potentially dangerous materials, conditions, machinery or processes under his/her supervision. Lab personnel must be trained to this policy.
    • Laboratories, workshops, store rooms and other work areas housing potentially dangerous materials, conditions, machinery or processes:
      • must be locked at all times when authorized personnel are not present
      • must be verified as locked at the end of the work day
      • must have access limited to authorized personnel only
    • All chemical use must be under the direct supervision of the LSF/PI or their authorized personnel at all times or otherwise must be locked within a laboratory or cabinet.
      • Maintain a chemical inventory
        • Additional attention should be paid to the security of hazardous chemicals such as cyanides and highly reactive materials.
        • Immediately report missing chemicals to AU Public Safety 2108 and EH&S 2190 and file an EH&S Accident/Incident/Near‐Miss Report within 24 hours. Send report to EH&S, AU Public Safety Office and the Division chair.
    • All DEA regulated compounds and controlled substances must be stored under double lock and strictly monitored. Refer to the University Biosafety Manual. (pending)
    • All needles and syringes must be stored under double lock and not left out in view
    • Report thefts, unauthorized entry, suspicious packages or threatening phone calls to AU Public Safety 2108.

2.3.3.8 Policy For Vacating Laboratories

The purpose of this policy is to ensure all chemicals, especially hazardous materials, are properly managed and a safe, clean laboratory space is transferred to the next occupant.

  • This policy applies to faculty, staff, post‐doctoral and visiting scientists, and graduate students. The LSF/PI assumes responsibility for their undergraduate researchers.
  • Prior to departure from Alfred University or a move from one laboratory space to another, lab personnel, as well as undergraduate researchers, must
    • follow procedures for lab cleanout and complete the Checklist for Vacating Labs
      • submit completed checklist to EH&S and the Division Chair
    • schedule an inspection with EH&S to obtain clearance
  • Employees departing from AU must also submit a completed and signed "Employee Separation Checklist" to HR

2.3.3.9 Pets In Laboratories

The AU Control of Animals policy, specifically states that "no animals of any kind, with the exception of registered service or assistance dogs (and aquarium fish, as per Residence Life policies) are allowed in campus buildings. Animals may be permitted elsewhere on campus as long as they are leashed, attended by the owner at all times, and not interfering with normal use of University facilities. Stray animals found on campus will be removed."

2.3.3.10 Laboratories Used As Classrooms

When laboratories are used as classrooms (Lecture only), all hazardous chemicals must be removed from the lab and properly stored in an area outside of the lab or stored in closed cabinets within the lab. Bench/counter tops must be wiped clean and disinfected if necessary.

  • The storage or consumption of food and/or beverage is prohibited in any room or area where chemicals are used or stored
  • With chemicals properly stored away, the use of eye protection is not required
  • All lab classrooms must be locked when not in use or occupied by authorized personnel

2.3.3.11 Energy Conservation In Laboratories

Laboratories are energy intensive facilities consuming many times the energy use of the average academic non‐lab classroom. Excessive energy use has a negative impact on the University budget as well as the environment.

  • Lab personnel can reduce excessive energy use by participating in the following conservation efforts
    • Turn off lights when leaving rooms
    • Close windows when leaving rooms
    • Use shades and blinds
    • Whenever possible turn off all electrical equipment, including computers, when not in use, especially at the end of the day.
    • Use timers to turn equipment on and off automatically
    • Purchase energy saving equipment
    • Keep all standard fume hoods shut off and sashes CLOSED when not in use. Keep sashes CLOSED on Variable Air Volume fume hoods when not in use.
    • Send a work order to the Physical Plant to report rooms that are too hot or too cold
    • Send a work order to the Physical Plant to report leaking faucets, etc

2.3.4 Use of Personnel Protective Equimpment (PPE)

OSHA states "Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of the hazards of the processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact."

  • The purpose of PPE is to protect employees from the risk of injury by creating a barrier against workplace hazards
    • PPE is not a substitute for good engineering or administrative controls or good work practices, but should be used in conjunction with these controls to ensure the safety and health of employees.
    • PPE is a last resort protection system that does not reduce or eliminate the hazard and protects only the wearer. The need for PPE is dependent upon the type of operations and the nature and quantity of the materials in use. Workers who rely on PPE must understand the functioning, proper use, and limitations of the PPE used.
  • The OSHA Personal Protective Equipment standard, 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I requires the following:
    • hazard assessment and equipment selection,
    • employee training,
    • record keeping requirements,
    • guidelines for selecting PPE,
    • hazard assessment certification.

It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI to ensure that proper PPE is available and in good condition and that the laboratory personnel under their supervision have received the appropriate training on the selection and proper use of PPE.

2.3.4.1 Hazard Assessment and Equipment Selection

LSF/PI must conduct hazard assessments of the specific operations or procedures occurring in their laboratories to determine appropriate PPE.

  • Identify all types of hazards present in the work area or laboratory and complete the Hazard Assessment Form Appendix I
    • Email a copy to EH&S, or deliver to room 117, Myers Hall
    • Notify EH&S of procedural changes that alter PPE assessments
  • A number of factors must be considered when deciding on the appropriate PPE to wear while performing operations or experiments presenting a chemical hazard:
    • chemicals being used, including concentration and quantity
    • hazards the chemicals pose
    • routes of exposure for the chemicals;
    • the material the PPE is constructed of
    • the permeation and degradation rates specific chemicals will have on the material
    • the length of time the PPE will be in contact with the chemicals
  • Give careful consideration to the comfort and fit of PPE to ensure that it will be used by laboratory personnel
  • Purchase and/or use only those items that meet NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) and/or ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standards.
  • The specific PPE required for procedures or operations within the laboratory, and its proper use, must be included in the site‐specific SOPs.

2.3.4.2 Training and Testing Requirments for Personal Protective Equipment

While EH&S provides some PPE training and offers information and training on conducting hazard assessments, and assistance with the selection and proper use of PPE, the responsibility for lab specific training lies with the LSF/PI.

  • Training Requirements
    Training requirements can be met with use of videos, group training sessions, and handouts.
    • Examples of topics to be covered during the training include:
      • when PPE must be worn
      • what PPE is necessary to carry out a procedure or experiment
      • how to properly put on, take off, adjust, and wear PPE
      • the proper cleaning, care, maintenance, useful life, limitations, and disposal of the PPE
    • All training should be presented in a manner that the employee can understand. Each affected employee shall demonstrate an understanding of the training specified and the ability to use PPE properly, before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE.
    • When the LSF/PI has reason to believe that any affected employee who has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required, the LSF/PI shall retrain that employee.
      • Other circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:
        • changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete
        • changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete
  • Testing and Documentation Requirements
    The LSF/PI shall verify that each affected employee has received and understood the required training through a written certification (test) that contains the name of the employee trained, the date of training, and the subject of the certification.
    • Recordkeeping requirements for PPE:
      • As with any training session, PPE training must be documented with the training date, description of the information covered during the training session, the trainer's name and the name and signature of the employees attending the training session. See Site‐specific Training Form Appendix F
      • Written certification must be kept and must contain the name of the person trained, the type of training provided, and the dates when training occurred.
      • Retain training records for the lab/department; send copies of the completed Site‐specific Training Form and written certification to EH&S.

2.3.4.3 Guidelines for Selection and Use of PPE

2.3.4.3.1 Eye and Face Protection

See OSHA Eye and Face Protection Standard Eye protection is one of the most important and easiest forms of PPE to wear. Laboratory personnel must use eye protection to prevent injury from chemical and physical hazards found in laboratories including flying particles, molten metal, acids or caustic liquids, chemical liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.

  • It is an AU EH&S policy that all laboratory employees and visitors must, at all times, wear protective eyewear while in laboratories where chemicals are being handled or not put away in storage.
  • These OSHA eye and face protection requirements must be met
    • Eye and face protection must comply with the American National Standards Institute, ANSI/ISEA Z87.1‐2015 standard
    • Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer
    • The following minimum requirements must be met by all protective devices. Protectors shall:
      • Provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they are designed
      • Be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed
      • Be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designated conditions
      • Fit snugly and not unduly interfere with the movements of the wearer
      • Be durable
      • Be capable of being disinfected
      • Be easily cleanable
      • Be distinctly marked to facilitate identification only of the manufacturer
    • Handling Emergencies
      • If an eye injury occurs, quick action can prevent a permanent disability. For this reason:
        • Emergency eyewashes should be placed in all hazardous areas
        • First‐aid instructions should be posted close to potential danger spots
        • Employees must know where the closest eyewash station is and how to get there with restricted vision
    • Consideration should be given to comfort and fit. Poorly fitting eye and face protection will not offer the necessary protection.
      • Prescription safety spectacles should be fitted only by qualified optical personnel
    • Devices with adjustable features should be fitted on an individual basis to provide a comfortable fit that maintains the device in the proper position.
    • Eye protection from dust and chemical splash should form a protective seal when fitted properly
    • Welding helmets and face shields must be properly fitted to ensure that they will not fall off during work operations
  • Employees must be trained in the proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal of PPE. Employees must properly maintain their PPE.
    • Maintenance:
      • PPE must be used and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition
      • The use of PPE with structural or optical defects is prohibited
      • Pitted lenses, like dirty lenses, can be a source of reduced vision. They should be replaced. Deeply scratched or excessively potted lenses are apt to break.
      • Slack, worn‐out, sweat‐soaked, or twisted headbands do not hold the eye protector in proper position. Visual inspection can determine when the headband elasticity is reduced to a point below proper function.
    • Cleaning:
      • Atmospheric conditions and the restricted ventilation of the protector can cause lenses to fog. Frequent cleansing may be necessary.
      • Eye and face protection equipment that has been previously used must be disinfected before being issued to another employee.
      • When employees are assigned protective equipment for extended periods, the equipment must be cleaned and disinfected regularly.
      • Several methods for disinfecting eye‐protective equipment are acceptable. The most effective method is to disassemble the goggles or spectacles and thoroughly clean all parts with soap and warm water.
        • Carefully rinse all traces of soap and replace defective parts with new ones. Swab thoroughly or completely and immerse all parts for 10 minutes in a solution of germicidal deodorant fungicide.
        • Remove parts from solution and suspend in a clean place for air drying at room temperature or with heated air.
        • Do not rinse after removing parts from the solution because this will remove the germicidal residue that retains its effectiveness after drying.
    • Storage:
      • Goggles should be kept in a case when not in use. Spectacles, in particular, should be given the same care as one's own glasses, since the frame, nose pads, and temples can be damaged by rough usage.
      • Items should be placed in a clean, dust‐proof container, such as a box, bag, or plastic envelope, to protect them until next use.
  • When selecting proper eye and face protection, be aware there are a number of different styles of eyewear that serve different functions.
    • Prescription Safety Eyewear OSHA regulations require that employees who wears prescription lenses while engaged in operations that involve eye hazards shall wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design, or must wear eye protection that can be worn over the prescription lenses (goggles, face shields, etc.) without disturbing the proper position of the prescription lenses or the protective lenses. Any prescription eyewear purchase must comply with ANSI/ISEA Z87.1‐2015.
    • Note: Contact lenses, by themselves, are not considered protective eyewear
    • Safety Glasses ∶ provide eye protection from moderate impact and particles associated with grinding, sawing, scaling, broken glass, and minor chemical splashes, etc. Side protectors are required when there is a hazard from flying objects. Safety glasses are available in prescription form for those persons needing corrective lenses. Safety glasses do not provide adequate protection for processes that involve heavy chemical use such as stirring, pouring, or mixing. In these instances, splash goggles should be used.
    • Splash Goggles ∶ provide adequate eye protection from many hazards, including potential chemical splash hazards, use of corrosive material, and bulk chemical transfer. Goggles are available with clear or tinted lenses, fog proofing, and vented or non‐vented frames. Be aware that goggles designed for woodworking are not appropriate for working with chemicals. These types of goggles can be identified by the numerous small holes throughout the face piece. In the event of a splash, chemicals could enter into the small holes, and result in a chemical exposure to the face. Ensure the goggles you choose are rated for use with chemicals.
    • Welder's/Chippers' Goggles ∶ provide protection from sparking, scaling, or splashing metals and harmful light rays. Lenses are impact resistant and are available in graduated lens shades. Chippers'/Grinders' goggles provide protection from flying particles. A dual protective eyecup houses impact resistant clear lenses with individual cover plates.
    • Face Shields ∶ provide additional protection to the eyes and face when used in combination with safety glasses or splash goggles. Face shields consist of an adjustable headgear and face shield of tinted or clear lenses or a mesh wire screen. They should be used in operations when the entire face needs protection and should be worn to protect eyes and face from flying particles, metal sparks, and chemical/biological splashes. Face shields with a mesh wire screen are not appropriate for use with chemicals. Face shields must not be used alone and are not a substitute for appropriate eyewear. Face shields should always be worn in conjunction with a primary form of eye protection such as safety glasses or goggles.
    • Welding Shields ∶ are similar in design to face shields but offer additional protection from infrared or radiant light burns, flying sparks, metal splatter, and slag chips encountered during welding, brazing, soldering, resistance welding, bare or shielded electric arc welding, and oxyacetylene welding and cutting operations.
    • Filter Lenses ∶ equipment fitted with appropriate filter lenses must be used to protect against light radiation. Tinted and shaded lenses are not filter lenses unless they are marked or identified as such.
    • LASER Eye Protection ∶ a single pair of safety glasses is not available for protection from all LASER outputs. The type of eye protection required is dependent on the spectral frequency or specific wavelength of the laser source. See OSHA Laser Hazard Standards for more information.

2.3.4.3.2 Hand Protection

Most accidents involving hands and arms can be classified under four main hazard categories: chemicals, abrasions, cuts, and heat/cold.

  • Gloves must be worn whenever there are significant potential hazards from chemicals, cuts, lacerations, abrasions, or punctures
  • Gloves must be worn whenever it is necessary to handle corrosive or toxic chemicals, broken or damaged glassware, or whenever protection is needed against unintentional exposure to chemicals.
  • Gloves are to be selected based on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
  • All gloves provide some protection but will be penetrated by most chemicals at varying rates. No glove is 100% impermeable to everything, and therefore no one glove will form a satisfactory barrier against all substances. Thus, one must evaluate the performance of a glove against various chemicals on a substance‐by‐substance basis. Refer to Glove Selection Chart Appendix C for chemical/glove chart.
    • Disposable gloves choices:(referenced from VWR and Best Glove catalogs)
      • Rubber (Latex) ∶ Latex resists many bases, acids alcohols, and dilute water solutions of many types of chemicals. It offers fair protection against undiluted ketones and aldehydes. It offers good resistance to cuts. Allergic reactions to the proteins in natural rubber latex gloves have been reported. If latex sensitivity is known or suspected, switching to nitrile or neoprene is recommended.
      • Synthetic Rubber (nitrile and neoprene) ∶ Nitrile offers good protection against bases, oils and many solvents and esters, grease and animal fats. It is NOT recommended for ketones and some organic solvents. Nitrile offers excellent resistance to snags, punctures, abrasion, and cuts. Neoprene is resistant to a very broad range of oils, acids, caustics and solvents but is less resistant to snags, cuts, punctures and abrasion than nitrile or natural rubber.
      • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) ∶ PVC offers good protection against many acids, caustics, alkalies, bases and alcohols. It is NOT recommended for ketones and many other types of solvents. PVC offers good abrasion and cut resistance, but some styles are susceptible to cuts.
      • Vitron Material ∶ Recommended when working with carcinogenic or highly toxic chemicals, organic solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene, methylene chloride, and carbon disulfide, especially if PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) gloves are ruled out by the risk of contact with water or light alcohols. Vitron gloves should not be used with ketones, ester, and amines.
      • Butyl Polymer ∶ Provides excellent chemical resistance to gases and ketones but is severely affected by exposure to fuels and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents.
      • Double gloving with butyl rubber and a 4 mil Laminate (Silver Shields or Safety 4H) is effective when handling certain special carcinogens and other highly toxic agents.
      • Silver Shields used alone provides resistance to a wide range of solvents and caustics
  • Gloves must be inspected, before each use, for punctures, tears, or discoloration. Any gloves, which show physical degradation, including pitting, cracking, swelling or discoloration, should be immediately discarded.
  • On removal of gloves, always wash your hands. The use of barrier or other protective skin creams is highly recommended.
  • For proper glove selection consult chemical SDS and/or the glove selection guide in Glove Selection Chart Appendix C or Web site for: Best Gloves Selection Guide (Chemical name, view sheet) and Labsafety EZ Glove Guide. These web sites are provided as additional reference. Alfred University has not investigated the accuracy of these sites and claims no responsibility for their contents
  • The best gloving strategy is: Avoid contact with hazardous substances - if contact occurs, remove gloves immediately and wash your hands.

2.3.4.3.3 Protective Clothing

Protective clothing includes lab coats or other protective garments such as aprons, boots, shoe covers, plastic arm covers, Tyvek coveralls, and other items, that can be used to protect street clothing from biological or chemical contamination and splashes as well as providing additional body protection from some physical hazards. Protective clothing must be readily available and used.

  • When working with toxic, corrosive, or flammable agents, you must wear protective clothing appropriate to the potential hazard.
  • The following considerations should be taken into account when choosing protective clothing:
    • The specific hazard(s) and the degree of protection required, including the potential exposure to chemicals, radiation, biological materials, and physical hazards such as heat.
    • The type of material the clothing is made of and its resistance to the specific hazard(s) that will be encountered
    • The comfort of the protective clothing, which impacts the acceptance and ease of use by laboratory personnel
    • Whether the clothing is disposable or reusable - which impacts cost, maintenance, and cleaning requirements
    • How quickly the clothing can be removed during an emergency. It is recommended that lab coats use snaps or other easy to remove fasteners instead of buttons.

2.3.4.3.4 Respiratory Protection

The primary objective in the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gasses, smokes, sprays, or vapors, shall be to prevent atmospheric contamination. This shall be accomplished by accepted engineering control measures, as far as feasible, (e.g., enclosure or confinement of the operation, general ventilation and fume hoods), and substitution of less toxic materials.

Respirators may only be used when engineering controls, are not feasible or do not reduce the exposure of a chemical to acceptable levels. The use of a respirator is regulated by the

  • OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard and is subject to prior review and approval by EH&S, according to university policy. Personal respiratory protection is only effective if it is selected specifically for the wearer and the contaminant of interest, within a known concentration range.
  • Any employee who works with materials, chemicals or in environments which require respirator use must be trained in the AU respirator program.
    • This program involves procedures for respirator selection, medical assessment of employee health, employee training, proper fitting, respirator inspection and maintenance, and recordkeeping.
    • When medical surveillance is required, AU shall provide these services at no cost to the employee
    • Respiratory Protection intended for comfort (mild irritants, odors) is allowed under the auspices of the AU Respiratory Protection Program.

2.4 Hazard Identification with Respect to Labels

Proper labeling of chemicals informs people who work in laboratories of potential hazards that exist, prevents the generation of unknowns, and facilitates emergency responses such as cleaning up spills and obtaining proper medical treatment. To maintain a basic level of safety, AU requires that all containers be appropriately labeled.

  • The OSHA Hazardous Communication Standard (29CFR 1910.1200(f)(5))requires each container of hazardous chemical in the workplace to be labeled, tagged or marked with the identity of the chemical and appropriate physical and health hazards and warnings. The OSHA Lab Standard requires that labels on all incoming containers must be maintained and not defaced. Since 1986, chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors have been required to ensure that every container of hazardous chemicals shipped is appropriately labeled with the name and address of the producer, the identity of the material and appropriate hazard warnings.
    • The manufacturer's label must be kept intact. Do not intentionally deface or obscure the label or the hazard warnings until the container has been completely emptied.
      • As part of laboratory self‐inspections, if any manufacturers label appears to be falling off, tape the label back on the container or if the label is damaged re‐label with a permanent label containing the information listed above.
      • Inadequate labels on hazardous chemicals purchased prior to 1986 should be updated to meet current standards
  • If a commercial chemical is repackaged into a new container for storage, this secondary container should be labeled with all the essential information on the original container.
  • Each container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace, including secondary containers (transferred chemicals) must be labeled, tagged or marked with the following information:
    • Identity of the hazardous chemical(s) / product(s) contained therein; legible and written out in English (another language may be added).
    • Signal Word
    • Pictograms
    • Maufacturer name, address, and phone number
    • Appropriate hazard statements , in wordswhich provides at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals.
  • Each container of non‐hazardous chemicals must be labeled with, at a minimum, the chemical name and manufacturer's name, address, and phone number, legible and written out in English.
  • All personnel working in the laboratory must be fully trained on how to label chemicals and to understand the labeling system.
    • Training must occur:
      • when a new person begins working in the laboratory,
      • when new chemicals are introduced,
      • on a regular basis (annually at a minimum)
    • See Site‐specific Training Form Appendix H

2.4.1 GHS Standard Hazardous Labeling System

OSHA has standardized the labeling requirement by GHS. The following standards have been adopted worldwide.

  • The objectives of the GHS system are to:

2.4.2 Labeling Procedures for Purchased Chemicals and Chemicals Synthesized or Developed in the Laboratory with Known Composition

  • Ensure that original labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced
  • Secondary containers of known hazardous chemicals, whether purchased, synthesized or newly developed, must be clearly labeled according to GHS system:

2.4.3 Labeling Procedures for Chemical Substances with Unknown Composition

  • Containers of newly developed or synthesized materials, must be clearly labeled as follows:
    • List the chemical names of starting materials
    • List all suspected or potential hazards
    • Provide a reference to the lab book entry for the experiment in which the substance was prepared
    • Provide the name, not just initials, location, and phone number of the person who prepared the substance
    • Date that the material was placed in the container and labeled
  • Containers of materials of unknown origin:
    • Perform any available tests to identify or classify materials
    • Label according to GHS requirements; list the possible identities of the material based on tests or general knowledge, origin or area where unknown was found.
    • Label and store for hazardous waste removal

2.4.4 Labeling Peroxide Forming Chemicals

  • Peroxidizable chemicals Appendix J must be labeled with:
    • date received,
    • date opened,
    • date tested for peroxides, initials of person performing testing,
    • test results,
    • disposal date

2.4.5 Methods for Labeling Multiple Small Containers

  • Legend Method
    • Label containers using a color, letter, number or abbreviated chemical name system.
      • Provide the identity "key" to the labeling system, with complete chemical name and hazard warning, on a sign or in a log book in a visible location where containers are stored. Document that employees are trained on the labeling system.
      • Please keep in mind that some laboratory employees may be color‐blind, red‐green and blue‐yellow. This fact needs to be taken into consideration, BEFORE a color‐coding system is used.
  • Overpack Method
    • Put containers in a compatible bottle with a screw lid, box, tray or Ziploc bag, etc
    • Label overpack container with chemical name and hazard warning
    • If containers are removed from the box/tray/bag they must be properly labeled or returned to the box/tray/bag immediately after use.
    • Document that employees are trained on the labeling system
  • Tag Method
    • Label containers using "price tag" GHS style labels and attach to container with string or a rubber band

2.4.6 Labeling Consumer Products

  • Consumable products (caffeine containing products, analgesics, etc.) used in laboratory experiments must be noticeably labeled example "For Experimental Purposes Only".
  • Products available over the counter (spray paint, adhesives, rubbing alcohol, 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, etc) to the general public are exempt from AU labeling requirements if it has already been labeled by the manufacturer.

2.4.7 Labeling Stationary Containers

  • Stationary process containers such as tanks may be identified with signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets or other written materials instead of actually affixing labels to process containers.
    • The sign or placard must convey the same information that a label would and be visible to employees

2.4.8 Labeling Portable Containers (Beaksers, Tubes, Etc.)

  • A portable container into which a hazardous chemical is temporarily transferred from a labeled container is exempt from labeling if the portable container is in control of the person who transferred it and the chemical is used immediately.
    • However, EH&S recommends that a temporary label identifying the chemical and its primary hazard be affixed to the container.
  • Laboratory personnel are encouraged to use commercially available pre‐labeled containers (such as squirt bottles) for chemicals that get used frequently.

2.5 Safety Data Sheets

A Safety Data Sheet (SDS) is a document containing chemical hazard and safe handling information. It is prepared by the chemical manufacturer in accordance with the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. SDS's are shipped with hazardous chemicals, found on manufacturer or distributor websites and are managed on the AU SDS Online Program database and/or in files. The SDS Online headquarters address and phone numbers are; SDS Online, 350 North Orleans, Suite 950, Chicago, IL 60654; Main Telephone: 312‐881‐2000 Fax: 312‐881‐2001 Toll Free: 1‐888‐362‐2007

  • All employees must read the SDS prior to using a chemical for the first time
  • LSF/PI must prepare SDSs for chemicals developed in the laboratory, as outlined in Provisions That Shall Apply to New Chemicals Substances Developed in the Laboratory.
  • The LSF/PI receives from the manufacturer a copy of the Safety Data Sheet for managing the SDS online database.
  • The LSF/PI ensures the assemblage and maintenance of the SDS electronic file with ongoing SDS updates for chemicals used or stored in his/her Division or lab.
    • The LSF/PI assigns a SDS Manager for each area or lab that uses chemicals
      • The LSF/PI assigns a SDS Manager for each area or lab that uses chemicals
        • SDS Managers contact EH&S for instruction on how to manage the SDS electronic file binder using the SDS Online Website.
        • Only SDS Managers can make changes to the files.
          • Messages for additions are delivered by e‐mail to EH&S for final approval if required
          • SDSs of chemicals newly purchased or developed in the laboratory are immediately added to the SDS Online database by the SDS Manager.
  • Areas where employees are working without a network computer available to access the AU SDS electronic file are required to maintain and manage a hardcopy SDS file as well as an online file.
    • The department of EH&S will plan for this SDS Manager to have use of a computer to assemble and update the SDS file
  • Satellite access and campus emergency responders will allow access to the SDS online database in case of a large‐scale emergency.
    • Emergency responders, such as the fire department, have access to view our SDS Online database during an emergency by contacting EH&S.
  • Contact EH&S at 607‐871‐2190 or the Health and Saftey Office for questions and assistance.
Safety Data Sheet Headings:

Identification of the substance or mixture and of the supplier:

  • GHS product identifier
  • Other means of identification
  • Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use
  • Supplier's details (including name, address, phone number, etc.)
  • Emergency phone number

Hazards identification:

  • GHS classification of the substance/mixture and any national or regional information
  • GHS label elements, including precautionary statements
  • (Hazard symbols may be provided as a graphical reproduction of the symbols in black and white or the name of the symbol, e.g., flame, skull and crossbones.)
  • Other hazards which do not result in classification (e.g., dust, explosion hazard) or are not covered by the GHS

Composition/information on ingredients: Substance

  • Chemical identity
  • Common name, synonyms, etc
  • CAS number, EC number, etc
  • Impurities and stabilizing additives which are themselves classified and which contribute to the classification of the substance.

Mixture

  • The chemical identity and concentration or concentration ranges of all ingredients which are hazardous within the meaning of the GHS and are present above their cutoff levels.

First aid measures

  • Description of necessary measures, subdivided according to the different routes of exposure, i.e., inhalation, skin and eye contact and ingestion.
  • Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed
  • Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

Firefighting measures

  • Suitable (and unsuitable) extinguishing media
  • Specific hazards arising from the chemical (e.g., nature of any hazardous combustion products)
  • Special protective equipment and precautions for firefighters

Accidental release measures

Handling and storage:

  • Precautions for safe handling
  • Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Exposure controls/personal protection.

  • Control parameters, e.g., occupational exposure limit values or biological limit values
  • Appropriate engineering controls
  • Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment

Physical and chemical properties:

  • Appearance (physical state, color, etc.)
  • Odor. Odor threshold. pH. Melting point/freezing point
  • Initial boiling point and boiling range
  • Flash point. Evaporation rate
  • Flammability (solid, gas). Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
  • Vapor pressure. Vapor density. Relative density
  • Solubility (is). Partition coefficient: n-octane/water
  • Auto ignition temperature. Decomposition temperature

Stability and reactivity:

  • Chemical stability
  • Possibility of hazardous reactions
  • Conditions to avoid (e.g., static discharge, shock or vibration)
  • Incompatible materials
  • Hazardous decomposition products

Toxicological information

  • Concise but complete and comprehensible description of the various toxicological (health) effects and the available data used to identify those effects, including:
  • information on the likely routes of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, skin and eye contact)
  • Symptoms related to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics
  • Delayed and immediate effects and also chronic effects from short- and long-term exposure
  • Numerical measures of toxicity (such as acute toxicity estimates)

Ecological information

  • Ecotoxicity (aquatic and terrestrial, where available)
  • Persistence and degradability
  • Bio accumulative potential
  • Mobility in soil
  • Other adverse effects

Disposal considerations:

  • Description of waste residues and information on their safe handling and methods of disposal, including the disposal of any contaminated packaging.

Transport information UN Number.

  • UN Proper shipping name
  • Transport Hazard class(es)
  • Packing group, if applicable
  • Marine pollutant (Yes/No)
  • Special precautions which a user needs to be aware of or needs to comply with in connection with transport or conveyance either within or outside their premises.

Regulatory information:

  • Safety, health and environmental regulations: specific for the product in question

Other information including information on preparation and revision of the SDS 4.9

2.6 Provisions that Apply to New Chemial Substances Developed in the Laboratory

The following requirements apply to new chemical substances developed in the laboratory:

  • The LSF/PI is responsible for ensuring that newly synthesized chemicals are properly managed within their laboratories
  • If the newly synthesized chemical is determined to be hazardous, the LSF/PI must comply with the requirements of this CHP for Employee Information and Training, Hazard Identification in regards to Labeling and Storage and Handling of Chemicals.
    • If the hazards of the new chemical are unknown, then the chemical must be assumed hazardous and the label should indicate that the potential hazards of the chemical have not been determined.
    • If the composition of the new chemical substance is known, the LSF/PI must determine if it is a hazardous chemical as defined by the OSHA Lab Standard. This can be done by referencing SDSs, doing a literature search for similar substances or a comprehensive review of the constituents.
  • The LSF/PI must prepare a SDS for newly synthesized chemicals if the chemical is hazardous by OSHA definition or assumed hazardous (see above) and if the newly created chemical or intermediate compound is going to be transferred to a different lab, researcher or testing lab on or off of the University campus. Log or retain copy of shipping information.

2.7 Storage and Handling of Chemicals

Chemical storage areas in the academic laboratory setting include central stockrooms, storerooms, laboratory work areas, storage cabinets, refrigerators, and freezers.

  • The typical risks within a storage area are dependent in large part on the chemical inventory; chemical hazards, chemical volume, and storage conditions.
    • The primary goals of proper chemical storage are to promote safe and healthy working conditions, extend the usefulness of chemicals and assure regulatory compliance.
    • Improper storage of chemicals can result in:
      • Degradation of containers that can release hazardous vapors
      • Degradation of containers that can allow chemicals to become contaminated
      • Degradation of labels that can result in the generation of unknowns
      • Chemicals becoming unstable and/or potentially explosive
      • Citations and/or fines from state and federal regulatory agencies
  • Of important and increasing concern is the physical security of chemical storage areas
    • Chemical storage areas must be locked when authorized personnel are not present
    • Provide adequate security so that unauthorized personnel do not have access to chemicals

2.7.1 Chemical Storage General Procedures

These procedures are based on compliance regulations as well as recommended practices for proper storage of chemicals.

Always keep spill control materials and PPE on hand in areas where chemicals are stored and used. Ensure all personnel working in the lab have been properly trained on the location and use of the spill kit and PPE.

  • Be aware of any special antidotes or medical treatment that may be required for chemicals such as Cyanides and Hydrofluoric Acid
  • Choose chemicals that minimize hazards such as toxicity, flammability, and reactivity. When possible, use the least hazardous chemical. (See Chemical Substitution List ‐ Appendix ?)
  • Order only the volume of chemical needed.When only a small amount of a chemical is needed it can often be obtained from another laboratory on campus.
    • Label chemical containers with the date of receipt and the date opened. This is especially important for peroxide forming chemicals and other chemicals with specific safe storage shelf life.
  • Be sure appropriate storage conditions such as physical space and storage units (flammable, corrosive cabinets, etc.) are available prior to purchasing a chemical. Some chemicals may have security restrictions or special storage requirements regarding temperature, or time. Generally, chemicals should be stored in cabinets or on shelves.
    • Limit storage of chemicals in laboratory hoods to the experiment being conducted in order to maximize the hood ventilation performance.
    • Avoid storage of chemicals on the floor unless secondary containment is used. Do not store in aisle spaces.
    • Avoid storing materials and equipment on top of cabinets. If you must place things there, however, you must maintain a clearance of at least 18 inches from the sprinkler heads or (if no sprinkler heads are present) 24 inches from the ceiling.
    • The storage of chemicals on bench tops should be kept to a minimum to help prevent clutter and spills, and to allow for adequate working space.
    • Do not store chemicals in direct sunlight or next to heat sources
    • Store higher risk chemicals (highly toxic, flammable, or reactive) in secondary containment to reduce the likelihood of release.
      • For liquid chemicals, plastic tubs and trays can be used as secondary containment for larger containers or multiple containers, while sealed cans and plastic bags can be used for smaller, individual containers.
      • For solid chemicals, sealed containers or plastic bags can provide secondary containment
  • Chemical storage shelving units or cabinets must be sturdy. Secure to a wall or other structure to avoid tipping over
    • Shelving should be secure and able to support the materials placed on them
    • Shelves should have a barrier or lip to prevent chemical containers from falling off. This can also be accomplished by using heavy gauge twine or wire to create a barrier on the shelf.
    • Arrange larger chemical bottles towards the back; smaller bottles should be stored up front where they are visible with labels facing forward.
    • For multiples of the same chemical, older containers should be stored in front of newer chemicals and containers with the least amount of chemical should be stored in front of full containers. This allows for older chemicals to get used up first and helps to minimize the number of chemical containers in the storage area.
    • Every chemical should have an identified storage place and should be returned to that location after use.
  • All chemical containers MUST be properly labled. See Hazard identification with Respect to Labels
    • Label incoming chemical containers with the date of receipt and the date opened. This is especially important for peroxide forming chemicals and other chemicals with specific safe storage shelf life.
    • Check chemical containers regularly and replace any deteriorating labels before the chemical becomes an unknown
    • Turn chemical bottles with the labels facing out so they can be easily read
  • A chemical inventory must be maintained for all chemicals stored within a division or laboratory. Keep inventories current by adding and deleting chemicals as they are received or disposed of. Use the AU chemical inventory formatted EXCEL worksheet, which will then be uploaded into Quartzy. Contact EHS for instructions.
    • Chemical Inventories must be updated at least annually by June 15th
    • Each laboratory should perform periodic, at least annually, visual inspections of the chemicals in the inventory
    • Chemicals that are no longer needed, or which meet any of the following conditions, must be disposed of through EH&S:
      • shelf life has been exceeded,
      • evidence of chemical reaction,
      • container and/or cap corroded, leaking, or otherwise in poor condition
    • Always segregate and store chemicals according to compatibility and hazard classes NOT alphabetically
    • Flammable liquids in excess of quantities for specific flammability classes must be stored in approved flammable liquid storage cabinets.
      • Do not store flammable liquids in standard (non-explosion proof) refrigerators or freezers. Due to the potential explosion hazard, only store flammables in refrigerators or freezers approved by the manufacturer for storage of flammables.
    • Corrosive chemicals should be stored in corrosion resistant cabinets
      • The exceptions to this rule are organic acids, such as Acetic acid, Lactic acid, and Formic acid, which are considered flammable/combustible and corrosive and can be stored in flammable or corrosive storage cabinets.
      • Do not store corrosives above a height of 5 feet
      • Be aware of special medical treatment for contact with Hydrofluoric Acid
    • Highly toxic chemicals such as inorganic cyanides must be stored in locked storage cabinets. Always keep the quantities of highly toxic chemicals to an absolute minimum. See Particularly Hazardous Substances.

2.7.2 Chemical Storage and Handling Based on Physical and Helath Hazards

Materials which present a physical hazard can be safely used if the specific hazard(s) are understood. If appropriate precautions are not taken, personal injury or property damage may occur. Additionally, certain chemicals cannot be safely mixed or stored with other chemicals because of the danger of a violent reaction or a reaction that generates toxic gas. See a table of Incompatible Chemicals. The Chemical Reactivity Worksheet is an excellent resource. It is a database that includes information about the intrinsic hazards of each chemical and about whether a chemical reacts with air, water, or other materials. It also includes case histories on specific chemical incidents, with references. Employees must follow special procedures for handling and storage of certain hazardous chemicals. The LSF/PI must create site-specific SOP's for these chemicals as specified.

2.7.2.1 Flammable/Combustible Liquids

Flammable and combustible liquids are one of the most common types of chemicals used. However, in addition to the flammable hazard, some flammable liquids also may possess other hazards such as being toxic and/or corrosive. Under the Division of Transportation (DOT) hazard class system, flammable liquids are listed as hazard class 3.

OSHA Flammable and Combustible Liquids Standard

  • A flammable liquid is any liquid having a flashpoint below 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C) or higher, the total of which make up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture.
    • Flashpoint is defined as the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to ignite in the presence of an ignition source. An important point to keep in mind is the risk of a fire requires that the temperature be above the flashpoint and the airborne concentration be in the flammable range above the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) and below the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL).
  • A combustible liquid as any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C), but below 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture.
  • OSHA and NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) further breaks down flammables into Class I liquids, and combustibles into Class II and Class III liquids. Please note this classification is different than the criteria used for DOT classification. This distinction is important because allowable container sizes and storage amounts are based on the particular OSHA Class of the flammable liquid.

    • These classes give a measure of the fire risk
      Flash Point Boiling Point
      Flammable
      Class IA < 73 ˚F (22.8 ˚C) < 100 ˚F (37.8 ˚C)
      Class IB < 73 ˚F (22.8 ˚C) ≥ 100 ˚F (37.8 ˚C)
      Class IC ≥ 73 ˚F (22.8 ˚C) & < 100 ˚F (37.8˚C)
      Combustible
      Class II ≥ 100 ˚F (37.8 ˚C) & < 140 ˚F (60 ˚C)
      Class IIA ≥ 140 ˚F (60 ˚C) & < 200 ˚F (93 ˚C)
      Class IIIB ≥ 200 ˚F (93 ˚C)
    • Maximum Flammable and Combustible Liquid Container Size
      The maximum allowable (OSHA, NFPA) sizes for flammable and combustible liquid storage containers are as follows:
      Container Type Flammable Liquids Combustible Liquids
      Class IA Class IB Class II Class IIIA Class IIIA
      Glass or approved plastic 1 pint 1 quart 1 gallon 1 gallon 1 gallon
      Metal (other than DOT drums) 1 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon
      Safety cans 2 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon
      Metal drums (DOT spec) 60 gallon 60 gallon 60 gallon 60 gallon 60 gallon
      Approved portable tanks 660 gallon 660 gallon 660 gallon 660 gallon 660 gallon
      Polyethylene (DOT Spec. 34 or as authorized by DOT Exemption 1 gallon 5 gallon 5 gallon 60 gallon 60 gallon
    •  
    • Exceptions: Glass or plastic containers up to one gallon capacity can be used for Class IA or IB flammable liquid if the stored liquid would be rendered unfit for its intended use by contact with metal, or would excessively corrode a metal container so as to create a leak hazard.
    • Maximum Allowable Quantities in Laboratory Buildings
      Contemporary laboratory safety practice dictates that the volume of flammable and combustible liquids stored and used in the laboratory be minimized. Flammable liquids, and to a lesser extent combustible liquids, should always be stored in flammable liquid storage cabinets and safety cans to minimize the risk of fire.

      The NYS Division of Code Administration and Enforcement, through incorporation of the International Fire Code (IFC), regulates maximum storage quantities for flammable and combustible liquids per fire control area. The IFC also limits the number of control areas per building and per floor. The maximum allowable quantities of flammable and combustible liquid, including chemical waste, per control area1 (control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with the Building Code of NYS) are:
      The maximum allowable quantities of flammable and combustible liquid, including chemical waste, per control area
      Class Storage In Use, Closed System In Use, Open System
      1A 30 gallons 30 gallons 10 gallons
      1A,1B, and 1C combined* 120 gallons 120 gallons 30 gallons
      II 120 gallons 120 gallons 30 gallons
      IIA 330 gallons 330 gallons
      * Quantity limits for Class 1A may not be exceeded.

Note 1: A single control area may be composed of multiple laboratory rooms; thus, the maximum allowable quantity of flammable and combustible liquids in an individual laboratory room will usually be less than the above control area values.
Note 2: The maximum allowable limits for flammable and combustible liquids can be doubled if stored in an approved flammable liquid storage cabinet (maximum of 3 cabinets) or approved safety cans, and can be doubled again if the rooms comprising the control area are equipped with automatic fire suppression sprinklers.

  • Quantities of flammable liquids stored outside of flammable storage cabinets or safety cans should be limited as follows:
    • The maximum quantity of Class I flammable liquids and Class II combustible liquids, combined, that can be stored outside of a flammable storage cabinet is 10 gallons; however, this total can be increased to 25 gallons if the flammable and combustible liquids are stored in safety cans.
    • The quantity of flammable liquid stored in refrigerators is included in the maximum amount that can be stored outside of an approved flammable liquid cabinet.
  • Storage in Flammable Liquid Cabinets
    • Cabinets must be regulation approved
    • Storage cabinets must be labeled "Flammable-Keep Fire Away
    • Maximum Storage Quantities
      • Maximum number of flammable storage cabinets is limited to 3 per control area
      • Maximum storage quantities per individual flammable liquid storage cabinet are:
        • first dependent on approved capacity of cabinet
        • 60 gallons of flammable or combustible liquid
        • 120 gallons of flammable and combustible liquid combined
  • Ventilation of Flammable Liquid Cabinets
    • Do not vent flammable storage cabinets
    • Do not remove vent bungs from flammable storage cabinets
  • Selection and use of refrigerators for flammable material storage
    • Do NOT use ordinary refrigerators they drain interior condensation as well as any spilled chemical and the motors are potential ignition sources.
    • Flammable Materials Refrigerators are designed with magnetic door seals (to avoid pressure buildup) and produce no sparks or hot surfaces inside storage box but motor produces sparks outside storage box. Use in ordinary laboratory but do not inside a flammable storage room.
    • Explosion-Proof Refrigerators contain no hot surfaces and provide a safe spark free interior and exterior. Use in a hazardous environment (Class I, Division I & II Group C and D applications).
    • Control odiferous vapors within a refrigerator by placing a tray of activated charcoal in the refrigerator. The charcoal should be handled in the hood because of the dust but it effectively controls many vapors.
  • While handling Flammable/Combustible liquids, observe the following guidelines:
    • Assure appropriate fire extinguishers and/or sprinkler systems are in the area
    • Eliminate ignition sources such as open flames, hot surfaces, sparks from welding or cutting, operation of electrical equipment, and static electricity.
    • Store in NFPA approved flammable liquid containers or storage cabinets, in an area isolated from ignition sources or in a special storage room designed for flammable materials.
    • All 5 gallon flammable liquid containers should be stored in a flammable liquid storage cabinet
    • Ensure there is proper bonding and grounding when it is required, such as when transferring or dispensing a flammable liquid from a large container or drum. Assure bonding and grounding is checked periodically.

2.7.2.2 Corrosives

OSHA defines a corrosive as "a chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact." Under the DOT hazard class system, corrosives are listed as hazard class 8.

  • Corrosive liquids (e.g. mineral acids, alkali solutions and some oxidizers) represent a very significant hazard to eyes, skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract.
    • Splashes can easily occur and their effect on human tissue generally takes place very rapidly
    • Bromine, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid are examples of highly corrosive liquids.
  • Corrosive solids and their dusts can react with moisture on the skin or in the respiratory tract causing irritation or burns. Sodium hydroxide pellets and phenol are examples of corrosive solids.
  • Corrosive gases and vapors are hazardous to all parts of the body; eyes and respiratory tract are particularly sensitive
    • The magnitude of the effect is related to the solubility of the material in the body fluids.
      • Highly soluble gases (ammonia, hydrogen chloride) cause severe nose and throat irritation while substances of lower solubility (nitrogen dioxide, phosgene, sulfur dioxide) can penetrate deep into the lungs.
  • Corrosive chemicals handling procedures
    • Read the SDSs and follow handling procedures
    • Appropriate PPE and a fume hood must be available where corrosives are used
    • Calcium gluconate gel is required on site where hydrofluoric acid is stored or used
    • Ensure spill cleanup material is available for neutralization, such as Calcium carbonate for acids and Citric acid for bases. An HF spill kit, provided by EH&S, must be available in labs using HF. The kit must contain PPE specific HF spill pillows or calcium compounds such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate or calcium hydroxide. Sodium bicarbonate should never be used since it does not bind the fluoride ion and can generate toxic aerosols.
    • An eyewash and emergency shower must be available wherever acids and bases are stored or used. See emergency response section, and HF Exposure
    • Containers and equipment used for storage and processing of corrosive materials should be corrosion resistant
    • Segregate and store corrosive chemicals properly, never store above 5 feet
    • Always use a protective bottle carrier when transporting corrosive chemicals
    • Wear splash goggles instead of safety glasses when working with corrosive materials. Splash goggles used in conjunction with a face shield provides better protection. A face shield alone does not provide adequate protection.
    • Wear rubber gloves (glove selection chart) and other appropriate protective clothing to protect all exposed skin surfaces from contact with gases and vapors.
    • Handle corrosive chemicals in a fume hood to avoid breathing corrosive vapors and gases
    • Wear a respirator if required by SDS. Some chemicals react with acids and liberate toxic and/or flammable vapors
    • When corrosive gases are to be discharged into a liquid, a trap, check valve, or vacuum break device should be employed to prevent dangerous reverse flow.
    • Regulators and valves should be closed when a corrosive gas cylinder is not in use and flushed with dry air or nitrogen after use.
    • When mixing concentrated acids with water, always add acid slowly to the water (specifically, add the more concentrated acid to the dilute acid). Never add water to acid, this can result in a boiling effect and cause acid to splatter. Do not pour the acid directly into the water; it should be poured in a manner that allows it to run down the sides of the container.

2.7.2.3 Particularly Hazarous Substances (PHS)

The OSHA Lab Standard requires that provisions for additional employee protection for work involving 'particularly hazardous substances' (PHS) be included in the CHP. The LSF/PI is responsible for determining if PHS are used or stored in his/her laboratory and if so determined the LSF/PI must complete the PHS Use Form, the Prior Approval Form and follow the specified PHS handling procedures.

The OSHA Lab Standard defines PHS as "select carcinogens", reproductive toxins and substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. Also, certain PHS may be subject to additional occupational safety and health 29 CFR 1910 standards these specific standards are not replaced by the 1910.1450, OSHA Lab Standard. A list of PHS is found in Appendix Q. This list not exhaustive, refer to SDS and otherreferences. Consult SDSs and links listed below for more information to determine whether a particular chemical may be a PHS.

    • Select Carcinogens
      A carcinogen is any substance or agent that is capable of causing cancer the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of new cells in any part of the body in humans or animals. Most carcinogens are chronic toxins with long latency periods that can cause damage after repeated or long duration exposures and often do not have immediate apparent harmful effects.
      • It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or
      • It is listed under the category, "known to be carcinogens," in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program NTP (Public Health, Report on Carcinogens)(latest edition); or
      • It is listed under Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans") by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs IARC (type 'classification') in the search box (latest editions); or
      • It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP, and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria:
        • After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m(3);
        • After repeated skin application of less than 300 (mg/kg of body weight) per week; or
        • After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day
    • With regard to mixtures, OSHA requires that a mixture “shall be assumed to present a carcinogenic hazard if it contains a component in concentrations of 0.1% or greater, which is considered to be carcinogenic.
    • Reproductive Toxins
      Reproductive Toxins are substances that have adverse effects on various aspects of reproduction, including fertility, gestation, lactation, and general reproductive performance. When a pregnant woman is exposed to a chemical, the fetus may be exposed as well because the placenta is an extremely poor barrier to chemicals. Reproductive toxins can affect both men and women. Male reproductive toxins can in some cases lead to sterility.
    • Substances with a High Acute Toxicity
      • High acute toxicity includes any chemical / toxic gas / that falls within any of the following OSHA-defined categories: (Hydrofluoric Acid is a substance with high acute toxicity)
        • A chemical with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight when administered orally to certain test populations.
        • A chemical with an LD50 of 200 mg or less per kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours to certain test populations.
        • A chemical with a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million (ppm) by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 mg per liter or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered to certain test populations by continuous inhalation for one hour, provided such concentration and/or condition are likely to be encountered by humans when the chemical is used in any reasonably foreseeable manner.
      • Estimating the hazard posed by the use of a chemical is controversial and complex. It involves much more than determining its toxicity. The severity of a chemical hazard depends not only on the toxicity but on its chemical and physical properties and the manner and quantity in which it is used. By learning about the potential hazards of the substances you use, and by practicing appropriate procedures for those substances, you can work safely in an informed and intelligent manner.
        • The exposure limits for any chemical is found in the SDS.
          The Limits will either be:
          • "regulatory" limits, which are mandated by OSHA, are called Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL). When a PEL exists, it will be used to determine the proper safety precautions, control measures, and personal protective equipment to be used. If no limit is provided, contact EH&S for guidance.
            -or-
          • "recommended limits" such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). The TLV will be used if the TLV is lower than the PEL, or in the absence of a PEL.
        • Toxicity information is also found on product labels and in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS-requires membership)
    • Certain PHS Subject to Specific OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Standards
      • Users of the materials listed below are expected to adhere to the provisions of all applicable substance-specific standards when and if employee exposure routinely exceeds the OSHA mandated permissible exposure limit (or Action Level, if specified).
      • These standards are found at this link of specific OSHA standards. Once the link is opened, scroll down on the list of standards to Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous 52 Standards; find the specific 1910.1000 or 1926.1101 series code listed below for the specific chemical.
        Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite 29 CFR 1910.1001
        4-Nitrobiphenyl .1003
        alpha-Naphthylamine .1004
        4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) .1005
        Methyl chloromethyl ether .1006
        3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and salts) .1007
        bis-Chloromethyl ether .1008
        beta-Naphthylamine .1009
        Benzidine .1010
        4-Aminodiphenyl .1011
        Ethyleneimine .1012
        beta-Propiolactone .1013
        2-Acetylaminofluorene .1014
        4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene .1015
        N-Nitrosodimethylamine .1016
        Vinyl Chloride .1017
        Arsenic (inorganic) .1018
        Lead .1025
        Cadmium .1027
        Benzene .1028
        Cotton dust .1043
        1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane .1044
        Acrylonitrile .1045
        Ethylene oxide .1047
        Formaldehyde .1048
        4,4'-Methylenedianiline .1050
        Methylene Chloride .1052
        Non-Asbestiform tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite 1926.1101
  • PHS Handling Procedures
    • The LSF/PI must develop laboratory (site) specific SOPs for PHS used in his/her lab= and provide site-specific training to all laboratory workers using PHS.
      • Training is documented on the Site-Specific Training Form Appendix F; a copy is sent to EH&S
      • The LSF/PI will authorize those employees who are adequately trained to work with a PHS. Complete Appendix G Employee Authorization Form and attach to SOP.
    • Prior to purchase or use (if currently in inventory) of a PHS, complete the Prior Approval Form Appendix V and PHS Use Form Appendix D and send to EH&S for approval; EH&S will reply within 2 workdays.
    • The LSF/PI must designate a lab or area, typically a fume hood, glove box, etc. where the PHS will be used. The area is posted with a noticeable sign stating:

    Danger - Designated Work Area

    For select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, substances

    with high acute toxicity

    all use must take place in this designated work area

     

    ONLY AUTHORIZED INDIVIDUALS USING PROPER

    PPE MAY WORK WITH THESE CHEMICALS

     

    For additional information contact AU EH&S 2190

    • All work is conducted within the Designated Area.
  • The increased hazard risk associated with PHS calls for more stringent operating procedures in the laboratory; consider the following when preparing site-specific SOP:
    • Work Habits
      • No eating, drinking, smoking, chewing of gum or tobacco, application of cosmetics or storage of utensils, food or food containers in laboratory areas where PHS (or any chemicals) are used or stored.
      • Wash hands and arms immediately after the completion of any procedure in which a PHS has been used and prior to leaving the laboratory.
      • Conducted each procedure with the minimum amount of the substance, consistent with the requirements of the work.
      • Keep records of the amounts of each highly hazardous material used, the dates of use and the names of the users.
      • Work on trays or absorbent plastic-backed paper (Bench Kote) or pads to help contain spilled materials and to simplify subsequent cleanup and disposal.
  • Personal Protective Equipment
    • PHS may require more stringent use of personal protective equipment. Check the SDS for information on proper gloves, lab clothing and respiratory protection.
    • Proper PPE must be worn at all times when handling PHS.
    • Wear lab clothing that protects street clothing, such as a fully fastened lab coat or a disposable jumpsuit when PHS is being used. Laboratory clothing used while manipulating PHS must not be worn outside the laboratory area.
    • When methods for decontaminating clothing are unknown or not applicable, wear disposable protective clothing. Disposable gloves must be discarded after each use and immediately after overt contact with a PHS.
    • For using Hydrofluoric Acid see Appendix N
  • Ventilation/Isolation
    • Most PHS work should be performed in a fume hood, glove box, or with other form of ventilation. If the chemical may produce vapors, mists or fumes, or if the procedure may cause generation of aerosols, use of a fume hood is required.
    • A fume hood used for PHS must have an average face velocity of between 95 and 125 feet per minute. This measurement is noted on the hood survey sticker. If the hood has not been inspected within the past 3 months, contact EH&S 2190 for re-inspection before using the hood.
    • Use a glove box if protection from atmospheric moisture or oxygen is needed or when a fume hood may not provide adequate protection from exposure to the substance; e.g., a protection factor of 10,000 or more is needed.
    • Highly toxic gases must be used and stored in a vented gas cabinet connected to a laboratory exhaust system. Gas feed lines operating above atmospheric pressure must use coaxial tubing.
  • Storage and Transportation
    • PHS must be stored in a designated storage area or cabinet with limited access. Additional storage precautions (i.e., a refrigerator, a hood, a flammable liquid storage cabinet) may be required for certain compounds based upon other properties.
    • Containers must be clearly labeled
    • Double containment should also be considered. Double containment means that the container will be placed inside another container that is capable of holding the contents in the event of a leak and provides a protective outer covering in the event of contamination of the primary container.
    • Store containers on trays or pans made of polyethylene or other chemically resistant material.
    • Persons transporting PHS from one location to another must wear proper PPE and use double containment to protect against spills and breakage.
  • Vacuum Lines and Services
    • Protect each vacuum service, including water aspirators, with an absorbent or liquid trap to prevent entry of any PHS into the system.
    • Use a separate vacuum pump when using volatile PHS. The procedure should be performed inside a fume hood
  • Decontamination and Disposal
    • Plans for the handling and ultimate disposal of contaminated wastes and surplus amounts of the PHS must be completed prior to the start of any laboratory activity involving a PHS. EH&S can assist in selecting the best methods available for disposal.
    • Contaminated materials should either be decontaminated by procedures that decompose the PHS to produce a safe product and/or be properly removed and stored for subsequent hazardous waste disposal.
    • All work surfaces must be decontaminated at the end of the procedure or work day, whichever is sooner

2.7.2.4 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides

The OSHA Laboratory Standard defines an oxidizer as "a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases." See Appendix R for a list of common oxidizers. The OSHA Laboratory Standard defines organic peroxide as "an organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical."

  • Safety Concerns:
    • Oxidizers and organic peroxides promote and enhance the potential for fires. Fire requires a fuel source, an oxygen source, an ignition source, and a chemical reaction.
      • Oxidizers can supply the oxygen
      • Organic peroxides supply both the oxygen and the fuel source
    • Both oxidizers and organic peroxides may become shock sensitive and explode when they
      • dry out
      • are stored in sunlight
      • become contaminated with other materials, particularly when contaminated with heavy metals
    • Most organic peroxides are also temperature sensitive
  • Storage and Handling:
    • Refer to Appendix K Segregation and Storage
    • Keep quantities on hand to a minimum
    • Read the SDS and other reference documents prior to use.
      • Understand the hazards and special handling precautions
      • Be aware of the melting and auto ignition temperatures
      • Ensure any device used to heat oxidizers has an over temperature safety switch to prevent the compounds from overheating.
    • Use particular care when handling high surface area oxidizers such as finely divided powders in the presence of organic materials.
    • Avoid using metal objects when stirring or removing oxidizers or organic peroxides from chemical containers. Plastic or ceramic implements should be used instead.
    • Avoid friction, grinding, and impact with solid oxidizers and organic peroxides
    • Avoid glass stoppers and screw cap lids. Use plastic/polyethylene bottles and caps
    • Avoid glass stoppers and screw cap lids. Use plastic/polyethylene bottles and caps.
      If the oxidizer or organic peroxide may have been contaminated, evident by discoloration of the chemical, dispose of the chemical as hazardous waste. Indicate on the hazardous waste label that you suspect contamination. If crystals are observed either in the liquid or around the cap, do not move the bottle and immediately call EH&S 2190.

2.7.2.5 Peroxide Forming Compounds

Many commonly used chemicals; organic solvents in particular, can form shock, heat, or friction sensitive peroxides upon exposure to oxygen and light. These carbon-based chemicals are capable of forming potentially explosive peroxide "O-O" bonds, thus making them among the most dangerous substances handled in the laboratory. Therefore, the LSF/PI must ensure that all peroxide forming chemicals in his/her laboratory are identified, tracked and tested for peroxides in order to protect the health and safety of laboratory workers

  • Common Peroxide Forming Chemicals
    Appendix J contains Tables A, B, C, and D listing common peroxide forming chemicals and their disposal times. The chemicals listed here are considered potentially explosive in their pure form. When they are mixed with other compounds, their hazards can change. When mixed with other compatible chemicals, especially water, their explosive hazard is sometimes decreased through dilution, but not always. Appendix J is not all inclusive; keep in mind there are no "complete lists" of peroxide forming chemicals. A wide range of organic chemicals can be oxidized by reaction with molecular oxygen to form explosive peroxides and there are many uncertainties about their hazards. Therefore, laboratory workers should consult container labels, SDSs, books such as "Hawley's Chemical Dictionary," or a list of common peroxide moieties (also found in Appendix J) if the hazards of a chemical are not well known or the chemical is suspected to form organic peroxides.
    1. Table A contains chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides without a concentration step, e.g., evaporation, distillation, etc. These chemicals can be a particular hazard since peroxides can form even without opening the containers. Therefore, only small amounts should be ordered and used as soon as possible. After opening, they should not be kept for over three months. When possible, store these chemicals under nitrogen.
    2. Table B contains chemicals that form explosive levels of peroxides upon concentration. These chemicals typically accumulate hazardous levels of peroxides when evaporated, distilled, contaminated, or have their peroxide inhibiting compounds compromised. After opening, they should not be kept for over 12 months.
    3. Table C contains chemicals that may autopolymerize as a result of peroxide accumulation. These chemicals can undergo hazardous polymerization reactions that are initiated by 56 peroxides that have accumulated in solution. They are typically stored with polymerization inhibitors to prevent these dangerous reactions. Inhibitors do become compromised over time however, and thus after opening, these chemicals should not be kept for over 12 months.
      Uninhibited chemicals of this subcategory should not be stored over 24 hours. Uninhibited chemicals should be inhibited with the appropriate compounds before the 24-hour mark is exceeded. Do not store inhibited chemicals in this category under an inert atmosphere because some of the inhibitors require a small amount of oxygen to work.
    4. Table D contains chemicals that cannot be placed into the above categories but still have the potential for forming hazardous levels of organic peroxides. After opening, they should not be kept for over 12 months.
  • Peroxide Forming Chemicals Disclaimer
    Currently, no specific OSHA regulations apply for the identification and handling of peroxide forming chemicals. Also, there is no definitive data about what concentration level of peroxides poses a hazard. However, AU must adhere to a requirement set forth by the TSDF (transport, storage and disposal facility) accepting our chemical waste. The TSDF allows a maximum peroxide concentration level of 10 ppm to ensure safe handling, transport and disposal of waste from peroxide forming chemicals. Follow the procedures below.
  • Managing Peroxide Forming Compounds
  • LSF/PI must ensure proper management and tracking of peroxide forming chemicals.
    • Purchase only the absolute minimum amount.
      • Peroxide-forming chemicals and reagents should be purchased with inhibitors added by the manufacturer, whenever possible.
      • Avoid evaporation or distillation ∶ distillation separates these inhibitors from the peroxide-forming chemical
      • An inert gas such as nitrogen or argon can be introduced into the container as an inert blanket to minimize available oxygen (inhibited vinyl monomers and Table C chemicals, are the exception to this recommendation).
    • Label container as "Peroxide Forming Chemical" with the date received, date opened, disposal date, each peroxide test date, test results and initials of tester.
      • Read the container label and SDS. Know the reactivity and stability characteristic. Note the appearance of the chemical as stated on the SDS. This is important for visual inspections of peroxide formers.
      • Only essentially anhydrous alcohols are subject to peroxidation. Solutions of alcohols with water (70% 2-propanol + 30% water) do not need to be labeled, tracked or tested.
    • Inspect containers of peroxide-forming chemicals often, looking for signs of precipitation, stratification of liquid, crystal formation, color changes or other irregularities.
      • The presence of any of these signs indicates a potential shock sensitive container NEVER open a container of a peroxide-forming chemical that has obvious crystal formation. The friction caused by opening a crystallized lid can cause an explosion. Do not move the container contact EH&S as soon as possible.
    • Test chemical for peroxides when bottle is first opened, at subsequent uses and/or every 6 months thereafter
      • Always evaluate chemicals as outlined below before testing for peroxides
    • Clean up all spills immediately. Use vermiculite or other absorbing material and dispose of properly
    • Dispose of peroxide formers as indicated in the tables in Appendix J Peroxide Forming Chemicals or when a peroxide level of 10 ppm or greater is detected. It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI to reduce the level of peroxides to 10ppm prior to waste removal.
      • Chemicals that reach their disposal date can still be used if testing for peroxides reveals a concentration below 10 ppm
  • Storage of Peroxide Forming Chemicals
    • Store only the amount of chemical needed within that chemical's safe shelf-life; see Appendix J
    • Store material in the original manufacturer's container.
      • Diethyl ether should be packaged in steel containers; the iron in the steel containers acts as an inhibitor
    • Never return unused quantities back to the original container
    • Never store in open, partially empty or transparent containers as these conditions promote peroxide formation
    • Store in a well ventilated area away from incompatible material such as oxidizers. For specific incompatibilities, refer to SDS.
    • Protect from flame, static electricity, sparks, sources of heat and sunlight
    • Protect from physical damage, shock and/or friction
    • Formation of peroxides may be slowed but not prevented by refrigeration and stabilizers will only retard formation.
      • Peroxide forming chemicals should not be refrigerated at or below the temperature at which the peroxide forming compound freezes or precipitates as these forms of peroxides are especially sensitive to shock and heat.
  • Handling Peroxide Forming Chemicals
    • Once peroxides have formed, an explosion can result during routine handling.
      • Since these chemicals are sometimes packaged in an atmosphere of air, peroxides can form even though the containers have not been opened.
    • Extreme care should be taken when opening and pouring organic peroxide formers.
      • After pouring, wipe any chemical off the threads of the container with a dry towel to prevent source of peroxide formation under the cap.
    • Wear chemical goggles and other appropriate PPE, consult SDS
    • Work in a fume hood and use secondary containment if practical
    • Never attempt to force open a stuck cap on a container
    • Verify that an operable safety shower/eyewash and fire extinguisher is readily accessible
    • At least one other person not directly involved in handling of the chemicals should be present
    • Always test peroxide-forming chemicals prior to distillation or other concentration procedures as this is when explosions commonly occur. DO NOT distill or concentrate if they contain any measurable amount of peroxide. 20% residual volume should be left during distillation. Test residual volume for peroxides prior to disposal. A non-volatile organic liquid, such as mineral oil, can be added to minimize concentration of any peroxides. Note this on hazard waste label.
  • Evaluate Chemicals Prior To Testing For Peroxides
    • Never test containers of unknown age or origin or try to force open a rusted or stuck on cap. Do not handle these containers, contact EH&S.
    • Visually inspect peroxide-forming chemicals.
      • A flashlight or other light source can be used to increase the visibility of the interior of amber bottles
      • Diethyl ether is commonly sold in steel containers which prevents visual inspection of the liquid. Therefore, diethyl ether containers whose age and use history are unknown should be assumed to contain dangerous levels of peroxides, and should not be disturbed. Contact EH&S.
      • Containers that exhibit any unusual visual characteristics, such as the examples listed below, should be assumed to contain dangerous levels of peroxides and should not be disturbed. Contact EH&S.
        • Liquid Chemicals
          • Crystallization (around the cap or in the liquid)
          • Visible discoloration
          • Liquid stratification
        • Solid Chemicals (potassium metal, potassium and sodium amide)
          • Discoloration and/or formation of a surface crust (for example, potassium metal forms a yellow or orange superoxide at the surface)
          • Evaluation of alkali metals and their amides is based on visual criteria only. These substances react strongly with water and oxygen, and standard peroxide tests should not be performed.
    • Only chemicals which pass visual inspection should be evaluated further
    • Only chemicals that meet this criteria should be opened and tested for peroxides:
      • The identity of the chemical is known
      • The age of the chemical (since manufacture) is known
      • Evaporation of the chemical is thought to be less than 10% if this is in question, assume evaporation has occurred and that high peroxide levels may be present.
      • The chemical is within the expiration or disposal date as specified in Appendix J
      • The chemical was tested for peroxides within the past 6 months
    • Chemicals that do not meet the above criteria should be considered high risk and not be disturbed. Notify EH&S
    • If after opening the container, visual irregularities such as those listed above are apparent, assume that dangerous levels of peroxides are present. Gently cover the container to minimize evaporation, do not move container, notify other lab personnel of the potential hazard and notify EH&S immediately.
  • Peroxide Testing Procedure
    • Laboratory personnel are responsible for performing peroxide testing of chemicals present in their laboratories or storage areas.
    • For chemicals that have been determined to be safe to open, measure the peroxide concentration by test strips or other wet methods.
      • Commercial peroxide test strips are fast and easy. The types of test strips that provide quantitative results are the suggested test method. These test strips can be purchased from a variety of safety supply vendors, such as VWR, Fisher Scientific and Laboratory Safety Supply.
      • Procedures for other wet methods can be found in Prudent Practices in the Laboratory and the American Chemical Society booklet Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories.
      • Follow testing procedures as specified by the chosen testing method
      • Chemicals that contain peroxide levels that exceed test detection range may be diluted with a miscible, peroxide-free solvent, Hexane, for example, to bring levels to within testing levels.
      • Run a control test for efficacy with a dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide
      • Chemicals with <10ppm peroxide levels may be safely used depending upon the application; do not distill or evaporate these chemicals.
  • Disposal of Peroxide Forming Chemicals
    • Chemicals with a peroxide concentration of 10 or less ppm can be disposed of as hazardous waste following AU Hazardous Waste policies and procedures.
    • Chemicals with a peroxide concentration of greater than 10 but less than 100 ppm must have the peroxide concentration reduced to less than 10 ppm before disposal.
      • Laboratory personnel are responsible for reducing peroxide levels. Record date and final test result on container. Appendix J provides procedures for reducing peroxide levels.
    • Chemicals with a peroxide concentration greater than 100 ppm are considered high risk, and may require special handling and stabilization by a "bomb squad" prior to disposal. Do not move. Post warning signs and immediately notify EH&S.
    • Chemicals that are suspected of having very high peroxide levels because of age, unusual viscosity, discoloration, or crystal formation should be considered extremely dangerous. Do not open or move. Post warning signs and immediately notify EH&S.

2.7.2.6 Water Reactive Materials

These materials react with water to produce a flammable or toxic gas or other hazardous conditions often resulting in a fire or explosion. Safe handling of water reactive materials will depend on the specific material and the conditions of use and storage. Read the SDS. Examples of water reactive chemicals include alkali metals such as lithium, sodium, and potassium; acid anhydrides, and acid chlorides.

2.7.2.7 Pyrophoric Materials

These materials ignite spontaneously upon contact with air. Often the flame is invisible. Examples of pyrophoric materials are commercial Grignard reagents, organic lithiums, silane, silicon tetrachloride, and white or yellow phosphorous. Pyrophoric chemicals should be used and stored with precautions to remove water and air.

2.7.2.8 Light-Sensitive Materials

These materials degrade in the presence of light, forming new compounds and/or conditions such as pressure build-up inside a container which may be hazardous. Examples of light sensitive materials include peroxide forming compounds, chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, ketones and anhydrides.

  • Store light-sensitive materials in a cool, dark place in amber colored bottles or other containers that reduce or eliminate penetration of light.

2.7.2.9 Unstable Materials (Shock Sensitive, Explosives)

These compounds spontaneously release large amounts of energy under normal conditions, or when struck, vibrated, or otherwise agitated. Some chemicals become increasingly shock-sensitive with age. Picric acid, azides and the inadvertent formation of explosive or shock-sensitive materials such as peroxides and perchlorates (from perchloric acid) are of great concern. Picric acid is distributed by the manufacturer wet with greater than 30% water and tends to form dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts over time or if improper storage allows the liquid to evaporate. A list of some common shock sensitive and explosive materials is provided in Appendix S. This list is not all-inclusive; consult SDSs.

  • Follow these guidelines:
    • Write the date received and date opened on all containers of shock sensitive chemicals. Some chemicals become increasingly shock sensitive with age.
    • Dispose of shock sensitive materials in accordance with manufacture's expiration date or for peroxide forming compounds see Appendix J.
    • Unless an inhibitor was added by the manufacturer, closed containers of shock sensitive materials should be properly disposed of after 1 year.
    • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment when handling shock sensitive chemicals
    • If there is a chance of explosion, use barriers or other methods for isolating the materials and call EH&S
    • If there is a suspicion that the formation of shock sensitive materials has occurred in ductwork or piping, contact EH&S

2.7.2.10 Cryogenic Liquids

These materials have a boiling point of less than -73˚ C (-100 ˚F). Common examples include liquid nitrogen, helium, argon, and dry ice/alcohol slurries. Cryogenic liquids undergo large volume expansion upon transition to the gas phase; for example, one volume of liquid nitrogen vaporizes to 694 volumes of nitrogen gas. Consequently, the warming of a cryogenic liquid in a sealed container produces high pressure, which can rupture the container.

  • Hazards of cryogenic liquids include:
    • fire (in the case of flammable or oxidizing materials),
    • pressure buildup, explosion,
    • severe frostbite (on contact with skin)
    • asphyxiation (due to depletion of available oxygen)
    • cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen are capable of condensing atmospheric oxygen, resulting in a localized, oxygen-enriched environment. An oxygen-enriched environment in combination with flammable/combustible materials and an ignition source can result in a violent reaction.
  • Safe Handling Practices:
    • Equipment should be kept clean, especially when working with liquid or gaseous oxygen
    • Mixtures of gases or fluids should be strictly controlled to prevent formation of flammable or explosive mixtures
    • Always wear chemical splash goggles when handling. If there is a chance of a splash or spray, a full face protection shield, an impervious apron or coat, cuff-less trousers, and high topped shoes should be worn. Watches, rings, and other jewelry should not be worn. Gloves should be impervious and sufficiently large to be easily thrown off should a cryogen spill on them. Pot holders could also be used. Clothes or shoes and socks should be immediately removed should a cryogen spill on them.
    • Handle objects that are in contact with cryogenic liquids with tongs or proper gloves
    • Keep liquid oxygen away from organic materials and ignition sources
    • Only work with cryogenic liquids in well-ventilated areas to avoid localized oxygen depletion or build up of flammable or toxic gas.
    • Refrigerated rooms generally recycle room air and dangerous atmospheres can result from use of cryogenic liquids or dry ice in these rooms.
    • Transfers or pouring of cryogenic liquids should be done slowly to avoid splashing
    • Cryogenic liquid/dry ice baths should be open to the atmosphere to avoid pressure build up
    • Transfer of liquid hydrogen in an air atmosphere can condense oxygen in the liquid hydrogen, creating an explosion risk.
    • Containers and systems containing cryogenic liquids should have pressure relief mechanisms which will vent container resulting in a hissing sound. Label tank affixed with pressure relief valve so valve is not inadvertently closed.
    • Containers and systems should be capable of withstanding extreme cold without becoming brittle
    • Since glass ampoules can explode when removed from cryogenic storage if not sealed properly, storage of radioactive, toxic or infectious agents should be placed in plastic cryogenic storage ampoules. Reheat cold sample containers slowly.
    • Cryogenic liquid cylinders and other containers (such as Dewar flasks) should be filled no more than 80% of capacity to protect against thermal expansion.
    • Shield or wrap fiber tape around glass Dewars to minimize flying glass and fragments should an implosion occur. Plastic mesh will not stop small glass fragments.

2.7.2.11 Compressed Gases

Compressed-gas cylinders are designed to Department of Transportation (DOT) specifications. A standard 2-ksi+ (ksi=1000 psi) cylinder has 1.5 cu.ft. of water volume and holds about 200 standard cu.ft. of gas. Compressed gases can be toxic, flammable, oxidizing, corrosive, inert or a combination of hazards. In addition to the chemical hazards, compressed gases may be under a great deal of pressure. The amount of energy in a compressed gas cylinder makes it a potential rocket with sufficient thrust to drive it through a masonry wall. Proper employee training and appropriate care in the handling and storage of compressed gas cylinders is essential.

  • Hazards of Handling and Storing Compressed Gases:
    • Asphyxiation is the primary hazard associated with inert gases. Because inert gases are colorless and odorless, they can escape into the atmosphere undetected and quickly reduce the concentration of oxygen below the level necessary to support life. The use of oxygen monitoring equipment is strongly recommended for enclosed areas where inert gases are being used.
    • Fire and explosion are the primary hazards associated with flammable gases, oxygen and other oxidizing gases. Flammable gases can be ignited by static electricity or by a heat source, such as a flame or a hot object. Oxygen and other oxidizing gases do not burn, but will support combustion of organic materials.
    • Chemical burns can be caused by corrosive gases; the gas can chemically attack various materials, including fire-resistant clothing. Some gases are not corrosive in their pure form, but can become extremely destructive if a small amount of moisture is added. Corrosive gases can cause rapid destruction of skin and eye tissue.
    • Chemical poisoning is the primary hazard of toxic gases. Even in very small concentrations, brief exposure to these gases can result in serious poisoning injuries. Symptoms of exposure may be delayed.
    • High Pressure stored inside the cylinder make all compressed gases potentially hazardous. A sudden release of pressure can cause injuries by propelling the cylinder or whipping a gas line.
    • Back or muscle injury may result from manually moving a cylinder. A standard cylinder has an outside diameter of 9 inches, but can vary in height-most being 50 inches tall and may weigh over 130 pounds. Dropping or dragging a cylinder could cause serious injury.
  • Procurement of Compressed Gases:
    • Compressed gas cylinders are not to be purchased but rented or leased from local vendors except for lecture bottles and commercial grade propane cylinders.
      • Lecture bottles should be purchased ONLY from distributors or manufacturers who will accept the empty bottle as a return. (SEE EMPTY CYLINDERS SECTION).
      • Propane cylinders must be brought to your Central Accumulation Area for recycling or proper disposal
    • Order cylinders through the Procurement Office
  • Safe Handling Procedures:
    • Always wear proper PPE, always read the SDS
    • Always secure cylinders whether in storage, transit or use.
    • Always transport cylinders, upright, using a cylinder hand truck or cart equipped with a chain or belt, even for short distances. Never drag, roll or slide cylinders.
    • NEVER ride in an elevator with compressed gas cylinders. Have one person send the elevator and another person receives the elevator.
    • Cylinder caps protect the valve and must be kept on until the cylinder has been secured with a chain or strap to a wall, bench or placed in a cylinder stand, and is ready for installation of the regulator.
    • Under no circumstances should any attempt be made to repair a cylinder or valve
    • Never force a gas cylinder valve; if the valve cannot be opened by the wheel handle, return the cylinder to the vender
      • Keep the cylinder valve closed except when in use
      • Do not use the cylinder valve itself to control flow by adjusting the pressure
    • Use compressed gases only in a well-ventilated area.
      • Toxic, flammable and corrosive gases should be carefully handled in a hood or gas cabinet
      • Proper containment systems should be used and minimum quantities of these products should be kept on-site
    • When discharging gas into a liquid, a trap or suitable check valve should be used to prevent liquid from getting back into the cylinder or regulator.
    • Never tamper with pressure relief devices in valves or cylinders. Label cylinder using pressure relief valve so valve is not inadvertently closed.
    • Where more than one type of gas is in use, label the gas lines. This is particularly important when the gas supply is not in the same room or area as the operation using the gases.
    • Do not use Oxygen as a substitute for compressed air
    • Never discharge contents for any gas cylinder towards any person
  • Storage of Compressed Gas Cylinders
    • Store compressed gas cylinders in a safe and secure area.
      • Inspect cylinders on receipt, ensure that the cylinder is properly and prominently labeled as to its contents
      • Return damaged or improperly labeled cylinders to vender
      • Inspect storage area regularly
      • If storage is outdoors, protect cylinders from weather extremes and damp ground to prevent corrosion
      • Store cylinders away from heavily traveled areas or emergency exits
      • Limit access to storage areas
    • All cylinders must be stored upright and secured to a fixed support using a chain or strap placed 2/3 of the way up. NEVER place acetylene cylinders on their side.
      • Cylinder stands are an alternative to chains or straps
      • Cylinders should be chained or strapped individually
      • Do not permit cylinders to strike each other violently
    • Do not store full and empty cylinders together
    • Oxidizers and flammable gases should be stored in areas separated by at least 20 feet or by a noncombustible wall
    • Greasy and oily materials shall never be stored around oxygen; nor should oil or grease be applied to fittings
    • Cylinders should not be stored near radiators or other heat sources.
      • No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temperature higher than 125˚ F
      • A flame should never come in contact with any part of a compressed gas cylinder
    • Do not place cylinders where they may become part of an electric circuit
    • Keep the number of cylinders to a minimum to reduce the fire and toxicity hazards
  • Using Compressed Gas Cylinders
    • Before using cylinders, read all label information, SOP and SDSs associated with the gas being used.
      • The cylinder label or decal is the only positive way to identify the contents of a cylinder
    • Use a pressure-reducing regulator or separate control valve to safely discharge gas from a cylinder. Do not use the cylinder valve itself to control flow by adjusting pressure.
      • The cylinder valve outlet connections are designed by the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) to prevent mixing of incompatible gases. The outlet threads vary in diameter; some are internal and some are external; some are right-handed, and some are left-handed. Generally, right-handed threads are used for non-fuel and water-pumped gases, and left-handed threads are used for fuel and oil-pump gases.
    • Some valves may require washers; if so, check compatibility before the regulator is fitted
    • Use check valves to prevent reverse flow into the cylinder
    • Use Teflon tape or thread lubricant for assembly, if necessary. Teflon tape should only be used for tapered pipe thread, not straight lines or metal-to-metal contacts. Teflon® tape is compatible for use in oxygen or oxidizer service.
    • Do not force threads that do not fit exactly
    • Discontinue use and contact the supplier if a cylinder valve is difficult to operate. Wrenches should not be used on valves equipped with hand wheels. If the valve is faulty, tag the cylinder, identifying the problem, and notify the supplier.
    • To attach a regulator, follow these steps:
      • Wear proper PPE. (safety glasses, face shield)
      • Properly transport and secure cylinder for use
      • Select the proper regulator specific to the gas involved. Check the CGA number on the back of the regulator to insure proper use.
        • Mark each new gas regulator with its intended gas service
        • Regulators that have been used in oxygen or oxidizing gas service must not be used in another service
        • To ensure safety and to avoid contamination, it is strongly recommended that regulators be dedicated to one gas service.
      • Attach the closed regulator to the cylinder.
        • The regulator should easily attach to a cylinder without forcing the threads
        • If the regulator inlet does not fit the cylinder outlet, do not force the fitting
        • A poor fit may indicate that the regulator is not intended for use on the gas chosen
      • Never open the cylinder valve unless the regulator is completely closed
      • Turn the delivery pressure adjusting screw counter-clockwise until it turns freely. This prevents unintended gas flow into the regulator.
      • Open the cylinder slowly until the inlet gauge on the regulator registers the cylinder pressure. If the cylinder pressure reading is lower than expected, the cylinder valve may be leaking.
      • With the flow control valve at the regulator outlet closed, turn the delivery pressure adjusting screw clockwise until the required delivery pressure is reached.
      • Check for leaks using Snoop or soap solution. At or below freezing temperatures, use a glycerin and water solution, such as Snoop, rather than soap. Never use an open flame to detect leaks.
      • When finished with the gas, close the cylinder valve and release the regulator pressure
  • Assembly of Equipment and Piping
    • Inspect tubing frequently and replace when necessary.
      • Avoid sharp bends of copper tubing
      • Copper tubing hardens and cracks with repeated bending
    • Tygon and plastic piping should not be used for any portion of a high-pressure system.
      • These materials can fail under pressure or thermal stress
    • Do not conceal distribution lines where a high concentration of a leaking hazardous gas could build up
    • Distribution lines and their outlets should be clearly labeled as to the type of gas they contain
    • To minimize undesirable connections, only CGA standard combinations of valves and fittings should be used in compressed gas installations; the assembly of miscellaneous parts should be avoided.
    • Do not use oil or lubricants on equipment used with oxygen
    • Do not use copper piping for acetylene
    • Do not use cast iron piping for chlorine
    • When work involving a compressed gas is completed, the cylinder must be turned off, and if feasible, the lines bled
  • Leaking Cylinders
    • Most leaks occur at the valve in the top of the cylinder and may involve the valve threads valve stem, valve outlet, or pressure relief devices.
      • Lab personnel should never attempt to repair leaking cylinders
    • Where action can be taken without serious exposure to lab personnel:
      • Move the cylinder to an isolated, well-ventilated area (away from combustible materials if the cylinder contains a flammable or oxidizing gas).
      • Contact EH&S 2190 or AU Public Safety 2108
    • Whenever a large or uncontrollable leak occurs, evacuate the area, follow emergency procedures, and immediately call for emergency assistance.
  • Empty Cylinders
    • When the cylinder is empty, all valves shall be closed, the system bled, and the regulator removed. The valve cap shall be replaced, the cylinder returned to the storage area and clearly mark as "empty," for pickup by the supplier.
    • Do not store full and empty cylinders together
    • Do not have full and empty cylinders connected to the same manifold. Reverse flow can occur when an empty cylinder is attached to a pressurized system.
    • Do not refill empty cylinders; only the cylinder supplier should refill gases
    • Do not empty cylinders to a pressure below 25 psi (172 Kpa). The residual contents may become contaminated with air
    • Lecture bottles should always be returned to the distributor or manufacturer promptly when no longer needed. Do not purchase lecture bottles that cannot be returned.
    • All propane cylinders when empty should be brought to your Central Accumulation Area for recycling
  • Lecture Bottle Disposal

Management Options for Partially Full Lecture Bottle

If you no longer have a use for a partially full lecture bottle, you should attempt to contact someone within the University who can use it. If the gas is Freon, it may be possible to recycle it with the manufacturer or with our Physical Plant Department, which can be reached at x2154 non-statutory or x2460 statutory. If the lecture bottle cannot be reused within the University, then return the lecture bottle to the manufacturer. If the gas is non-hazardous (air, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, neon, nitrogen, or xenon), then you may vent the gas to fume hood. After the lecture bottle is empty, you must then remove the valve, and the remaining metal carcass can then be recycled or disposed in the regular trash. If the lecture bottle contains a poison or other hazardous gas and none of the other options are workable, then it may require disposal as a hazardous waste.

Removing Valves from Non-Hazardous Only Lecture Bottles

Removal of valves from lecture bottles can present a significant hazard if the cylinder is not fully discharged or if there are hazardous chemical residues present. Lecture bottles that held flammable gases may still present a fire or explosion hazard, while those that held corrosive, poisonous, or reactive gases may still have sufficient residues to present a hazard to the person working with the cylinder. Remaining residues may require it to be managed as a hazardous waste. In general, all pyrophorics should be excluded from this procedure. Eye protection and gloves should be minimum protection whenever removing valves from lecture bottles. Ensure that the lecture bottle is empty

Visually inspect the valve to see if there are obvious physical defects or corrosion that may have affected the valve. If there is a defect or corrosion problem, do not attempt to manipulate the valve. Rather, cap or plug the outlet and dispose of as hazardous waste. If the valve appears to be safely operable, check the gas pressure within the lecture bottle by attaching the correct Compressed Gas Association pressure regulator. Once the pressure, if any, has been determined, remove the regulator and then place the lecture bottle in the fume hood 66 and carefully open the valve. Allow the lecture bottle to set for a few minutes to assure that the pressure inside is at the ambient level. All lecture bottle labels should be defaced prior to disposal.

Remove the valve.

If hazardous, dispose of as hazardous waste if supplier will not accept bottle back. Only as last resort.

Hazardous Waste Disposal

Any lecture bottle that is not returnable or cannot be managed on site will require management as a hazardous waste. EH&S will arrange for most cost effective and environmentally sound disposal for you. Lecture bottles will not be accepted and picked up until EH&S receives an appropriate budget number in which to bill back the disposal cost.

  • NFPA Guidelines for Maximum Number of Gas Cylinders:
      • According to NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, the maximum quantity and size limitations for compressed gas or liquefied gas cylinders in laboratory work areas1 is:
        Flammable gases and/or Oxygen Liquified Flammable gases Gases with Health Hazard rating of 3 or 4
        sprinklered space non-sprinklered space sprinklered space non-sprinklered
        Max. # of cylinders per 500 sq.ft. or less 6 3 3 2 2
        Max. cylinder size in inches 10x50 10x50 9x30 9x30 4x15
    • 1 In instructional laboratory work areas the total number of cylinders shall be reduced to three maximum size cylinders or ten 2"x 13"cylinders or equivalent volume. In all other cases twenty-five 2"x 13" cylinders or equivalent volume shall be permitted.
  • Flammable Gases
    • Keep sources of ignition away from the cylinders
    • Oxidizers and flammable gases should be stored in areas separated by at least 20 feet or by a non-combustible wall
    • Bond and ground all cylinders, lines and equipment used with flammable compressed gases
    • Compliance with Hydrogen monitoring according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.103 is required when a hydrogen system (tank, regulators, filters, piping, etc) in a lab contains 400 cu. ft. or more of hydrogen (applies only to the hydrogen portion of mixed gases).
  • Gases Requiring Special Handling
    • Highly toxic gases, such as arsine, diborane, fluorine, hydrogen cyanide, phosgene, and silane, oxygen and acetylene, present special hazards, either due to their toxicity or physical properties, requiring additional precautions. Consult SDS and contact EH&S for additional guidance. Some of these gases are Particularly Hazardous Substances, PHS Appendix Q, and their use requires prior approval by EH&S.
  • Additional information on the safe handling and use of compressed gases is available from the Compressed Gas Association and Matheson Tri-Gas Products.

3.0 Transporting Chemicals on Campus

When transporting chemicals between laboratories or other buildings on campus, the following procedures must be adhered to. If you plan on transporting or shipping any hazardous chemicals off the contiguous campus (you are off the contiguous campus once you are on Main Street), be aware there are specific procedures, training and other legal requirements that must be followed. For further information, refer below to the Section 4.0.

  • Always wear proper PPE
  • Know where the nearest spill kit is located
  • Chemicals must be in a closed container
  • For liquids, use a secondary container such as a rubber acid carrying bucket, plastic bucket, or a 5-gallon pail
  • Use compatible packing material (shipping peanuts, vermiculite, or cardboard inserts), to prevent bottles from tipping over or breaking during transport;
  • Carts with lipped surfaces (such as Rubbermaid carts) should be used whenever feasible
  • Whenever possible, do not use elevators when transporting chemicals, especially cryogenic liquids or compressed gas cylinders.
    • If it is necessary to use an elevator, all passengers are prohibited.
      • Use the buddy system in which one person sends the properly secured chemicals, dewars or cylinders on the elevator, while the other person waits at the floor by the elevator doors to receive the material.
  • When transporting compressed gas cylinders, always use a proper gas cylinder hand truck with the cylinder strapped to the cart and keep the cap in place.
  • Do not transport hazardous chemicals in personal vehicles. Contact EH&S 2190 for assistance in arranging proper transport.

4.0 Hazardous Materials Shipping or Transport Off Campus

The U.S. Division of Transportation (DOT) and the International Civil Aviation Organization regulates the shipping/transport of hazardous materials. Additional regulations are enforced by the airlines through the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

  • All AU package preparation for shipping and/or transportation of hazardous materials off University property is subject to DOT regulations and enforcement.
    • Packing must be leak tight for liquids and gases, shift proof for solids and be securely closed and secured against shifting and damage.
    • Each material must be packaged in the manufacturer's original packaging or a packaging of equal or greater strength and integrity.
    • Contact EH&S to arrange for off campus shipping or transport of hazardous materials
  • The following are DOT regulated as hazardous materials for shipping or transport:
    • Alcohol solutions
    • Compressed gases
    • Corrosives
    • Dry Ice (air shipments only)
    • Explosives
    • Flammable liquids and solids
    • Formaldehyde (solutions between 0.1% and 25%, air shipments only)
    • Infectious substances (animals and humans only)
    • Oxidizers
    • Poisons
    • Radioactive materials

5.0 Refrigerators, Hot and Cold Rooms

Refrigerators and Hot or Cold Rooms are not ventilated, and pose a special hazard for the accumulation of high air concentrations of volatile chemicals.

  • Special care is necessary to ensure protection from explosion, fire or exposure from vapors when storing chemicals in a refrigerator. Ensure that flammable chemicals are stored in refrigerators that are "explosion-proof". Sparking that may occur in household units can ignite and explode vapors.
  • Refrigerators and Hot/Cold rooms must not be used to store foods for consumption. Post appropriate sign

6.0 Waste Management and Disposal

Waste management and disposal, including disposal cost (call EH&S with disposal cost questions), must be considered prior to purchase of any chemical. "Less is better" and "Green Chemistry" applies.

  • Laboratory employees must properly manage and dispose of all chemicals in accordance with Federal, State and Local regulations.
  • There are restrictions on sink and land-fill disposal set forth by the Village of Alfred Sewer Ordinance, Allegany County Division of Public Works, New York Division of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
    • Only substances listed on the approved disposal lists from the Allegany County Landfill and Village of Alfred POTW are allowed to be disposed of in the trash or down the drain.
    • Treatment (e.g., elemental neutralization, submit Neutralization report form), trash or drain disposal of any hazardous waste must be reviewed and approved by EH&S.
  • Refer to the AU Hazardous Waste Guide, Used Electronics Policy, Universal Waste Policy, Regulated Medical Waste Policy and Procedures, Allegany County Landfill Disposal List and Wastewater Discharges to Village of Alfred Sanitary Sewer System Disposal List available at EH&S for waste management information and procedures. Access policies and manuals at my.alfred.edu/environmental-health-safety.
  • Refer to P-List Substances/Wastes in Section 2.7.2.3

7.0 Standard Operating Procedures

The OSHA Lab Standard requires that a CHP include standard operating procedures (SOPs) that provide detailed descriptions for the safe and proper use of hazardous chemicals. SOPs must also be developed for equipment, processes or operations that use a hazardous chemical or pose physical hazards. SOPs should be clear and precise so that an individual responsible for a particular procedure or piece of equipment can easily understand them. The AU CHP Parts I, II (General SOP) and Appendices along with laboratory site-specific SOPs constitute the CHP for that laboratory or for a Division/Department with laboratories using the same chemicals. Employees are required to read and receive training on the SOPs relevant to their particular job.

  • AU General SOP
    Part II of the CHP is the AU General SOP. It specifies University policies, provides information and general operating procedures for handling of hazardous chemicals, including hazardous chemical classes such as corrosive, flammable, etc., to which all AU laboratories must adhere.
  • Site-specific SOPs (Laboratory specific)
    It is the responsibility of the LSF/PI within each laboratory, Division or Department to write site-specific SOPs and add them to the lab CHP.
  • Site-specific SOPs are required:
  • when certain classes of hazardous chemicals are routinely used in a laboratory, OSHA Lab Standard (29CFR 1910.1450(e)(3)(i), (viii).
  • These classes are select carcinogens, reproductive toxins or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. See PHS.
  • for highly flammable chemicals (NFPA/HMIS Flammability Rating of 4) and very reactive chemicals such as strong corrosives, oxidizers and reducing agents, (NFPA/HMIS Reactivity Rating of 3 or 4).
    for hazardous processes or operations
  • Review and update SOPs on an annual basis. Updates should be made when there is any significant change in the procedure, new chemical products or equipment are used, new hazards are identified, or stated safety precautions are determined to be inadequate.
  • Use the site-specific SOP forms provided in Appendix W. Electronic versions are encouraged. When completing the electronic SOP form, use an ink color that will stand out from the form's black type.
  • Select the proper SOP form and complete as instructed in Appendix W.
    Process/Experiment/Equipment: (distillation, synthesis, chromatography, etc.)
    OR
    Chemical/Hazard Class: benzene, hydrochloric acid, etc. or flammable, oxidizer, carcinogen, etc.
  • Site-specific SOP's are not needed when the AU CHP (Parts I and II) covers the scope of the work performed in the laboratory.
  • If your laboratory does not meet the criteria requiring site-specific SOPs as detailed in this section 7.0 or as specified elsewhere in the AU CHP, insert a statement, signed by the LSF/PI, into your copy of the CHP stating that all chemicals stored and used and all procedures/duties performed in the lab are covered by the AU CHP, Parts I, II and Appendices.